achene: a small, dry, one-seeded fruit that does not open at maturity.
acuminate: gradually tapering to a sharp point.
acute: pointed; having a sharp tip.
adventitious roots: roots arising from the stem.
alternate leaves: leaves arranged singly at each node, and subsequent leaves are on different sides of the stem.
annual: a plant which completes its life cycle within one year and dies after flowering.
anthesis: the period during which pollen is produced and shed.
apex (apices pl.): the point of culmination (ie. the tip); the highest point.
appressed: lying flat or pressed closely to a surface but not joined to it.
aromatic: having a distinctive smell or aroma.
ascending: growing on a slant at first, but becoming upright.
asexual reproduction: reproduction that occurs without sexual organs (eg. vegetative reproduction).
asymmetric: not symmetrical; cannot be superimposed on its mirror image.
auct. non: the associated scientific name was misapplied or wrongly used.
awn: a slender bristle-like structure.
axil: the upper angle between a leaf stalk and the stem that bears it.
axillary: located or occurring in an axil.
basal: located at or near the base of a particular plant part.
beak: a pointed projection or tapering tip present on some seeds and fruits.
berry: a fleshy fruit, without a hard centre, that does not open at maturity.
Best: a function in Lucid that, when used, should give you the fastest route through the key. After making a selection and narrowing down the taxa remaining you can use the "Best" button. The characters which will help the most, in narrowing down the taxa remaining even further, will appear at the top of the "Characters Available" window. The second best character will appear below this, etc. Since this "Best" character is statistically determined, it may not always be the best character for you, so look at the list and choose the easiest character. "Best" can be chosen at each and every step during an identification.
biennial: a plant which lives for longer that one year but less than two years.
bilateral symmetry: having two sides that are the mirror image of each other.
bi-lobed: with two lobes.
Bingo: a function of Lucid that can be used to provide a quick identification. Some character states listed in the "Characters Available" window may apply to only one of the remaining weeds, hence choosing such a state would immediately reduce the weeds remaining list to a single species. Such character states are called “Bingo” states. To see a list of bingo states, click the "Bingo" button on the toolbar. Scan the list for any states that apply to your specimen and double click on any that are appropriate. This function is best used when only a few weeds remain in the list.
bipinnate: twice divided; consisting of parts that are already compound.
bipinnatifid: cut into lobes, each of which are divided into smaller lobes.
bisexual: having male and female parts in the one flower.
biternate: a leaf with leaflets arranged in three sets of three.
blade: the expanded, usually flattened, part of a leaf.
bract: a small leaf-like structure usually found underlying another plant structure (eg. flower).
branchlet: a very small branch; the smallest subdivision of a branch.
bristle: a stiff hair-like structure.
broadleaf: refers to a member of the group of plants known as the dicotyledons (one of the two groups of flowering plants, the other group being the monocotyledons), usually having broad or relatively broad leaves rather than thin or needle-like leaves.
bulb: a plant storage structure found below ground, which is usually surrounded and protected by dead leaf tissues.
bulbil: a small bulb.
burr: a structure consisting of the seeds or fruits of plants, usually surrounded by a prickly outer covering.
capsule: a dry fruit that opens at maturity, releasing its contents.
cauline: attached to a stem along its length (ie. not part of a basal rosette).
caustic: describing sap, or a plant containing sap, that is capable of damaging, burning, or eating away tissues.
Character: a character in Lucid is a feature of a weed (eg. flower colour, leaf shape, etc.). The list of characters is shown in the "Characters Available" window. Each character has a character name and a list of two or more possible "Character States" which can be viewed by clicking on that character's name.
Character state: a character state is the form that a particular character takes. Thus the character “Plant Form” may have the states “Tree”, “Shrub”, "Vine", etc. Information about character states (ie. images and definitions) can be viewed by clicking on the information button next to the name of each state.
ciliate: bordered with a line of hairs.
circinate: rolled up into a coiled ring.
cladode: a flattened stem which resembles and functions as a leaf.
climber : a vine or climbing plant that grows up over a supporting structure or other plants.
coma: a tuft or cluster of hairs on the top of a seed.
compound leaf: a leaf composed of more than one part or leaflet.
cone: the reproductive structure of certain non-flowering plants (eg. pine trees), consisting of a central axis around which are arranged a compact group of scales.
conical: cone-shaped; having a shape that tapers from a wide base to a point at the apex.
cordate: heart-shaped in outline.
corky: describes woody stems at least partially made up a light, soft, water-resistant protective tissue (ie. cork).
corona: a crown-shaped outgrowth of the perianth of a flower; any crown-like structure at the top of a plant part.
corrugated: shaped into folds (ie. parallel and alternating ridges and grooves).
cosmopolitan: widely distributed; occurring in many parts of the world or in many habitats.
cotyledon: the first leaf or pair of leaves of a plant; the seed leaves.
creeping: to grow or spread over the ground surface or other plants.
crenate: having a margin with blunt or rounded teeth (ie. small scalloped projections).
culm: the stem of a grass plant.
cultivar: a variety of a plant that has been developed or selected intentionally from a natural species and maintained under cultivation.
cyathium (cyathia): an inflorescence consisting of a cuplike structure enclosing a female flower and several male flowers that is only found in some members of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge) family of plants.
deciduous: a plant that sheds some or all of its leaves at the end of the growing season.
declared plant: a plant officially legislated against by a government authority due to its pest potential.
decumbent: growing or lying on the ground but with upright tips.
dentate: with tooth-like projections, generally pointing outwards.
denticulate: finely or minutely toothed.
dicotyledon (dicot): a flowering plant with two seed leaves or cotyledons that usually appear at germination.
disarticulate: to separate at the joints.
discolourous: where the two surfaces of a leaf are different in colour.
dissected: deeply divided into many segments or lobes.
domatia: small, rounded projections that are usually located on the midrib of a leaf.
dorsally compressed: flattened in such a way that the flower parts are not folded on themselves.
drupe: a fruit with a stony centre (which contains a single seed) surrounded by a fleshy layer and a skin that does not open at maturity.
echinate: covered with long prickles.
elliptic: shaped like an oval or ellipse.
elongated: being significantly longer than wide (ie. slender).
entire margin: a leaf margin that is uniform (ie. without indentations, lobes or divisions).
epiphyte: a plant which grows on another plant, but does not obtain nourishment from it.
erect: having a vertical or upright position.
exotic: not native, from another part of the world (ie. foreign).
fibrous roots: roots that are small, thin, bunched, and resemble a group of fibres.
floret: a small flower that is part of a larger cluster; a reduced grass flower.
follicle: a dry fruit which has one compartment and opens only along one side at maturity.
funnelform: shaped like a funnel.
gelatinous: having a viscous consistency, resembling jelly.
glabrous: hairless, without hairs or similar structures.
gland: a structure that is usually minute and globular which often secretes oily, resinous or gummy substances.
glandular: having glands or associated with a gland or glands.
glaucous: having a pale bluish-green or greyish colouration.
globular (ie. globose): shaped like a sphere, ball or globe.
graminoid: grass-like, resembling a grass or concerning a grass.
grass: a member of the Poaceae family of plants, a plant having simple and generally elongated leaves, a jointed stem, an inflorescence of flower spikelets, and producing fruit with a single seed (ie. caryopsis).
grouped leaves: a number of individual leaves gathered or located together, for the purposes of this key it specifically applies to several leaves arising from the same point at the tip of a small branch, and is distinct from a whorl of leaves in that the leaves are not arranged around the stem along its length.
habit: the general appearance and form of a plant.
habitat: a location where, or environment in which, an organism commonly grows.
half-bark: a tree that has one type of bark at its base (usually rough) and another type of bark on its upper parts (usually smooth).
herb (herbaceous): a non-woody, usually small, seed-bearing plant.
hooks: curved or barbed plant parts that aid in attachment to supporting structures or in seed dispersal.
host: an organism on which another organism lives.
hybrid: a plant produced by the crossbreeding of two distinct species.
immature fruit: a fruit that has not yet reached the stage of full development, not ripe.
incised: deeply and sharply cut or notched, usually referring to the margin of a leaf.
inflorescence: a term that describes the arrangement of flowers as a group or cluster on the flowering part of a plant.
introduced plant: a plant that has been brought to a new place or environment and become established there.
involucre (involucral adj.): a number of prominent bracts encircling the base of a flower, flower cluster or fruit.
juvenile: not fully grown or developed, immature.
lacerate: having deeply and irregularly cut edges.
lamina: the expanded, usually flattened, part of a leaf (ie. the leaf blade).
lanceolate: lance-shaped, narrow and tapering to a point at the apex.
laterally compressed: flattened in such a way that the flower parts are folded on themselves.
latex: a milky sap or juice that is exuded from plant parts when they are broken.
legume: a member of the 'pea' plant family (ie. Fabaceae), or the fruit of members of this family (ie. a pod).
lemma: the lower and outermost of the two scales that are part of a grass floret and enclose a grass flower.
lenticel: a corky spot or pore on the stem or branch of a woody plant.
linear: long and narrow (eg. linear leaf).
littoral: a coastal region or habitat, near the sea.
lobed: having deeply indented margins and forming sections that are not completely separated from on another.
longitudinal: running lengthwise or in the direction of the length.
Lucid: Lucid is a powerful but simple interactive identification program. The "Lucid Player" allows interactive use of identification keys created in the "Lucid Builder". Identification of an organism is made by matching its features against a list of characters and selecting the appropriate state for those characters. The "Lucid Player" will then remove unlikely organisms from a list of possible species.
mealy: covered with a course white, powder-like substance.
membranous: thin and translucent; resembling a membrane.
midrib: the central and principle vein of a leaf.
mottled: having different coloured spots or blotches; variegated.
naturalised: establishing or persisting in a new environment or location after being introduced from another region (ie. not native).
node: the joint on a stem from which other structures such as leaves arise.
noxious weed: a weed that is harmful in some way; also a term describing a plant officially legislated against by a government authority due to its pest potential (ie. another name for a 'declared weed').
nut: a one-seeded and hard-shelled fruit that does not open at maturity.
nutlet: a very small nut.
obcordate: heart-shaped in outline but with the pointed end at the base.
obovate: egg-shaped in outline but attached at the narrower end.
obovoid: egg-shaped and solid with the point of attachment at the narrower end.
ochrea (ochreae pl.): a sheath encircling the stem near the base of a leaf.
operculum: a lid covering the top of a flower bud.
oppositely arranged: arranged in pairs and arising from the same level along a plant stem.
orbicular: circular in shape.
ornamental: a plant deliberately grown or cultivated for its beauty or decorative value.
ovate: egg-shaped and flat; broader and rounded at the base and tapering toward the end.
ovoid: solid and egg-shaped.
ovule: an immature seed prior to fertilisation.
palmate: divided into segments that radiate from one point and resemble the fingers of a hand.
panicle: an inflorescence or flower cluster that is divided into branches, each bearing several flowers.
pappus: a ring of hairs, bristles or scales found at the top of many fruit belonging to the 'daisy' (Asteraceae) family of plants.
parasite: an organism that grows, feeds and is sheltered on or in another organism known as its host (ie. causing harm but providing no benefit to its host).
pedicellate: having a pedicel or flower stalk.
peltate: having the leaf stalk attached to the underside of the leaf blade instead of at its base or margin.
pendulous: hanging downwards or drooping.
perennial: a plant which requires more than two years to complete its life cycle; living for longer than two years.
petiole: a leaf stalk; a stalk attaching the leaf blade to the stem.
petiolate: having a petiole or leaf stalk.
pith: a soft, spongy substance found in the central portion of some stems.
plantlet: a small plant, often formed on the tips of leaves or branches (eg. stolons).
pod: a several-seeded dry fruit that splits open at maturity; the fruit of a leguminous plant (ie. member of the 'pea' family or Fabaceae).
prickle: a small sharp outgrowth on the stem or leaf; a small thorn.
prostrate: growing or lying flat along the ground.
Prune Redundants: a feature of Lucid that allows you to discard 'Characters' or 'Character states' that will no longer help to identify the weed. After selecting some 'Character states' other 'Characters' or 'Character states' may no longer be useful for distinguishing between the taxa left in the taxa remaining window. Use the 'Prune redundants' button to discard them.
pubescent: covered with short, fine hairs; hairy.
quadrangular: having four angles or four sides in cross-section; four-sided.
receptacle: an expanded structure at the tip of the flower stalk on which all of the parts of a flower are borne.
recurved: curved in the opposite direction; curved downwards or backwards.
reflexed: bent backwards sharply.
Restart: a function of Lucid that resets the key to its starting position. If you have finished an identification, and wish to start another, click on the 'Restart' button.
rhizomatous: consisting of or having the appearance of rhizomes.
ribbed: having ridges or raised features on the surface.
rootlets: a small or fine root.
rosette: a circular arrangement of leaves that radiate from a central point close to the ground.
rosulate: arranged into a rosette.
scabrous: having a rough surface.
scalloped: edged with a series of curved projections; crenated.
scape (scapes pl.): a leafless flower stalk or peduncle that arises from near or below the ground.
scrambling: growing over low obstacles, structures or low-growing plants; climbing almost horizontally.
sedge: a grass-like plant belonging to the family Cyperaceae, particularly the genus Cyperus; a plant which has clusters of inconspicuous flowers subtended by bracts elongated and hairless leaves, usually has triangular stems, and is often found growing in marshy areas.
serrate (serrated): edged with sharp projections or teeth that are forward-pointing.
serrulate: having a minutely serrated or toothed margin.
sessile: stalkless; without a stalk and attached directly at the base.
Sets: the 'Characters' for this Lucid key are arranged in 'Sets' or groups which can be viewed separately when making an identification. There are three main 'Sets', or sub-sets, of Characters that you can use - Novice, Intermediate and Expert. The Novice 'Set' is for users who have little botanical background and hence do not wish to use highly botanical characters, the Intermediate 'Set' is for users that have some botanical knowledge, while the Expert 'Set' is designed for those that have a good botanical understanding. When the key is first opened it is using the Intermediate character 'Set' as a default. There are also character 'Sets' for particular plant parts (ie. stem, leaf, flowers & fruit, etc.). You can add or remove sets of characters in the character list by clicking on the appropriate box for that set.
sheath: an almost tubular structure such as the base of a leaf that surrounds or clasps the stem.
sheathed: covered with or having a sheath.
siliqua: a dry fruit that splits open from both sides at maturity and is either very elongated or obviously two-celled; the fruit of the 'mustard' or Brassicaceae family of plants.
species: a category of taxonomic classification ranking below a genus and consisting of individual organisms grouped together because of their common attributes and with the ability to interbreed.
specimen: an individual of a species; a representative sample.
spine: a strong and thin woody outgrowth with a sharp point.
spore: a reproductive body found in the ferns and certain other non-flowering plants.
sprawling: growing or spreading in different directions in a straggling or disorderly manner.
standard: the uppermost and largest petal of a 'pea-shaped' flower or flower of the Fabaceae family of plants.
State: See "Character state".
stellate: star-shaped; having several pointed projections radiating from a central point.
sterile floret: a flower incapable of producing seed or fruit.
stigma: the terminal female part of a flower on which the pollen is deposited.
stigmatic: part of or relating to a stigma.
stipule: a small and usually leafy structure or appendage at the base of a leaf that is usually one of a pair.
stoloniferous: having or sending out stolons.
straggling: growing or spreading irregularly in different directions in a sprawling manner.
striated: marked with long narrow coloured stripes, ridges or grooves.
subcordate: almost or nearly heart-shaped.
subequal: almost equal, particularly in size.
subglobose: almost globe-shaped or spherical.
subsessile: almost stalkless or sessile.
subshrub: a small or low-growing shrub.
subspecies: a taxonomic subdivision of a species.
subspherical: almost spherical or globe-shaped.
subtending: underlying; extending under.
subterete: almost terete or cylindrical.
subtropical: almost tropical; in Australia the climatic region just south of the Tropic of Capricorn.
succulent: describing a leaf or stem that is thick and fleshy or juicy in appearance and has a water-storing capacity; a plant with juicy leaves or stems that is adapted to arid conditions.
synonym: an alternative, usually previously used, scientific name. A synonym results when it is determined that a species was originally wrongly identified or placed in the wrong genus, etc, and it is therefore given a new name to replace the incorrect one. A species can have several synonyms if its taxonomy has been difficult to define in the past.
taproot: the main root of a plant which grows directly downward to a considerable depth.
taxon (taxa pl.): a taxonomic category (eg. species, genus, family, etc.).
taxonomy: the theory and practice of classifying organisms in an ordered system.
taxonomic: relating to taxonomy or classification of organisms.
temperate: a climate c
tendril: a slender, usually twisting, structure found on the stems or leaves of some plants that aids climbing by clinging to objects and thereby providing support.
terete: cylindrical (ie. circular in cross-section) and tapering at the ends.
terrestrial: living or growing on land (ie. not in an aquatic environment).
toxic: poisonous (ie. capable of causing injury or death).
translucent: almost transparent or see-through (ie. allowing light to pass through).
trifoliate: See trifoliolate.
trifoliolate: a compound type of leaf with three leaflets.
tropical: a climate characterized by hot temperatures and high humidity; the climatic zone either side of the equator.
truncate: appearing to abruptly terminate as if cut off squarely at the tip or base.
tubercular hairs: hairs arising from a small swollen or wart-like base.
tuberous: resembling a tuber; bearing or producing tubers.
tubular: shaped like a tube or hollow cylinder.
twiner: a climbing plant that winds, twists or coils around objects or plants for support.
twining: twisting or coiling around an object or plant.
undulating: having a wavy appearance or outline.
unisexual: having male and female flowers on separate plants (ie. having either male or female parts in a flower).
vascular plants: highly developed plants that have have specialised structures or tissues for circulating fluids within the plant (ie. vascular tissue).
variegated: having different coloured markings (eg. spots, blotches, streaks or patches).
variety: a taxonomic subdivision of a species, a group of individuals which is distinct in form or function from other groups of individuals within a species.
vegetative reproduction: reproduction by non-sexual means, involving unspecialised plant parts.
venation: the arrangement of the veins in a leaf.
vernation: the arrangement of the leaf when young and its process of unfolding.
vine: a climbing or creeping plant that is weak-stemmed and supported by other objects.
weed: a plant existing in a place and/or at a time in which it is considered undesirable or troublesome.
weeping: having stems or branches which droop or hang down towards the ground.
whorled: arranged in a whorl.