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Fonscochlea (Fonscochlea) billakalina Ponder, Hershler and Jenkins, 1989

Diagnostic features

This is the 'small aquatic' species of the middle and northern springs in the Lake Eyre supergroup. The shell is much smaller than F. accepta and F. aquatica. The operculum differs from the other small aquatic species in having weak to absent pegs. 

Classification

Fonscochlea (Fonscochlea) billakalina Ponder, Hershler and Jenkins, 1989

Class Gastropoda

Subclass Caenogastropoda

Order Littorinimorpha 

Superfamily Truncatelloidea

Family Tateidae

Genus Fonscochlea Ponder, Hershler and Jenkins, 1989

Original name: Fonscochlea (Fonscochlea) billakalina Ponder, Hershler and Jenkins, 1989. Ponder, W. F., Hershler, R. & Jenkins, B. (1989). An endemic radiation of hydrobiid snails from artesian springs in northern South Australia: their taxonomy, physiology, distribution and anatomy.Malacologia 31: 1-140.

Type locality: Old Billa Kalina Spring, Lake Eyre Division, South Australia.

Biology and ecology

This form is the small aquatic species living in the South Western Springs. It is generally abundant in the upper outflow of the spring attached to hard objects such as pieces of wood, stones or bone. It is not amphibious. Lives together with Trochidrobia.

Additional information on the biology and ecology of members of this family can be found in Fauna of Australia, vol. 5B, p. 752-755.

Distribution

Artesian Springs of northern South Australia between Marree and Oodnadatta in the Lake Eyre Division. South-western springs.

Notes

This is one of several species of Fonscochlea found in northern South Australia. They are all very similar, being separated on small differences in size and shape of the shells and in anatomical details. They have pupiform shells with adults having a thin to slightly thickened aperture and the operculum usually bears one or more pegs. Fonscochlea are among the most geographically isolated tateid snails in Australia.

Further reading

Ponder, W. F., Hershler, R. & Jenkins, B. (1989). An endemic radiation of Hydrobiidae from artesian springs in northern South Australia: their taxonomy, physiology, distribution and anatomy. Malacologia 31: 1-140.

Ponder, W. F., Eggler, P. E. & Colgan, D. J. (1995). Genetic differentiation of aquatic snails (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae) from artesian springs in arid Australia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 553-596.

Ponder, W. F. (2004). Endemic aquatic macroinvertebrates of artesian springs of the Great Artesian Basin—progress and future directions. Records of the South Australian Museum Monograph Series 7: 101-110.