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Jardinella Iredale & Whitley, 1938

Diagnostic features

Shell variable in shape (depressed trochoid to elongate conic), with evenly convex whorls, umbilicate to nonumbilicate, usually lacking true sculpture but rarely (in one species) with axial growth lines thickened as riblets. Growth lines and outer lip of aperture prosocline; periphery of last whorl evenly convex. Operculum yellow to reddish brown, with eccentric nucleus, inner surface with or without white smear, sometimes with small homy lump on inner surface near nucleus but lacking lacking distinct pegs. Radula with central tooth typically having 2 pairs of basal processes, innermost larger; sometimes with 1 or 3 pairs. Males with an often coiled pallial vas deferens, distal penis usually lacking lobes.

Classification

Class Gastropoda

Subclass Caenogastropoda

Order Littorinimorpha 

Superfamily Truncatelloidea

Family Tateidae

Genus Jardinella Iredale & Whitley, 1938

Type species: Petterdiana thaanumi Pilsbry, 1900

Original reference: Iredale, T. & Whitley, G.P. (1938). The fluvifaunulae of Australia. South Australian Naturalist 18: 64-68.

Type locality: Near Cairns, Queensland; type locality restricted to Barron River.

Biology and ecology

Found in coastal streams on rocks, leaves and wood in the Wet Tropics and on sediment and weeds around the edges of springs in western Queensland. Egg capsules of the Wet Tropics Jardinella are transparent, lens-shaped, 0.48-0.53 mm in diameter, laid singly in umbilical chink of females. Great Artesian Basin Springs Jardinella produce large yolky eggs.

Distribution

Jardinella occurs in two main areas in Queensland – a) Coastal Rivers of the Wet Tropics around Cairns. b) Great Artesian Basin Springs in western Queensland, these fall into four main categories:

1. Barcaldine Supergroup:- springs on the eastern edge of the Basin north east of Longreach, including Edgbaston Springs.

2. Spring sure Supergroup:- springs on the eastern side of the Basin west of Rolleston.

3. Springvale Supergroup:- springs on the western edge of the Basin south east of Boulia.

4. Eulo Supergroup:- springs on the southern side of the Basin west of Eulo.

Notes

Jardinella is distinguished from all other related tateid genera in usually possessing two pairs of cusps on the central teeth of the radula and in never developing "calcareous" pegs on the operculum, although there is often a white smear. All but one of the western Queensland spring-associated Jardinella species is considered to be endangered because the springs in which they are found have no conservation status and are threatened by pastoral activities and drawdown caused by artesian bores.

Further reading

Beesley, P. L., Ross, G. J. B. & Wells, A., Eds. (1998). Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Parts A & B. Melbourne, CSIRO Publishing.

Perez, K. E., Ponder, W. F., Colgan, D. J., Clark, S. A. & Lydeard, C. (2005). Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of Spring-associated hydrobiid snails of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34: 545-556.

Ponder, W. F. (1991). The eastern seaboard species of Jardinella (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae), Queensland rainforest-inhabiting freshwater snails derived from the west. Records of the Australian Museum 43: 275-289.

Ponder, W. F. (1994). Australian freshwater Mollusca: conservation priorities and indicator species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 36: 191-196.

Ponder, W. F. & Clark, G. A. (1990). A radiation of hydrobiid snails in threatened artesian springs in western Queensland. Records of the Australian Museum 42: 301-363.

Ponder, W. F. & Slatyer, C. (2007). Freshwater molluscs in the Australian arid zone. Pp. 1-13 in C. Dickman, Lunney, D. & Burgin, S. Animals of arid Australia: out on their own? Mosman, NSW, Royal Zoological Society of NSW.

Ponder, W. F., Wilke, T., Zhang, W.-C., Golding, R. E., Fukuda, H. & Mason, R. A. B. (2008). Edgbastonia alanwillsi n. gen. and n. sp. (Tateinae: Hydrobiidae s.l.: Rissooidea: Caenogastropoda): a snail from an artesian spring group in western Queensland, Australia, convergent with some Asian Amnicolidae. Molluscan Research 28: 89-106.