GLOSSARY (click on links to see image)
A8 refers to the last abdominal segment.
adhesion pads are cushion-like structures that form the apical terminal appendage of the legs. They are present only in the immature form of the Aleyrodinae subfamily of whiteflies.
agglomerate pores are a type of compound pores for the purposes of this key consisting of sub circular to oval large pore-like structures with a clear margin containing a central cluster of small pore-like or papillae. According to Quaintance (1917) " consist of a clear marginal area and a central area composed of numerous small papillae or rod-like pores, giving this area the appearance of a brush. " According to Caballero, "simple pore arranged in a restricted circle, giving the appearance of a compound pore; there is a large, chitin process in the center..." These are considered anomolous respiratory in nature as compared to the other types of compound pores that are considered wax producing structures [personal correspondence with Dr. Peter Gillespie].
annulus (plural, annuli) refers to the structure in compound pores composed of a ring of facets or "spinneret" cells that resemble variable shaped facets or cells.
bifurcate process is a heavily sclerotized, two-pronged, horn-like structure that dorsally covers the vasiform orifice in the Genus Aleurocerus. It is unique to that genus, but may be broken off during the mounting process
central processes, also termed "axial process" [Martin, Zootaxa 2004: 16], are structures, if present, that rise from the center (central lumen) of a compound pore in the form of splines (rods), cones, spikes or other shapes.
cordate vasiform orifice refers to the "heart-like" shape of the orifice.
claws are hook-like structures that form the apical terminal appendage of the leg. They are present in all stages of the Aleurodicinae subfamily of whiteflies and the adult stages of all whiteflies.
compound pore (for the purposes of this key) are the following:
1. A small to large invaginated gland with none to several distinct spinneret cells (or loculi) arranged in a circular fashion at the lumen (central base) at its base. A central process may be absent or emerge from the central lumen in the form of splines (rods), cones, spikes or other shapes.
2. Small circular or sub circular glands enclosing a cluster of pitting or papillae-like structures, also known as agglomerate compound pores.
3. Caveat: do not confuse with large simple discoidal pores found in Dialeuropora species
disc (discoidal) pore is normally a minute, circular, pore without locules (spinneret cells) or central processes occurring on the sub medial, sub dorsal or sub marginal dorsal surface. Also may be large simple discoidal pores found in Dialeuropora species
double-rimmed pore is a circular pore along the sub margin with a light, central portion encircled by a dark rim which is also encircled the same but lighter rim.
exserted lingula refers to the lingula projecting beyond the posterior margin of the vasiform orifice.
inserted lingula refers to the lingula contained within the vasiform orifice.
lingula is the dorsal organ that is attached within the vasiform orifice with a pointed, paddle, or tongue shaped appearance; considered an organ to remove fecal material. It may be contained within inserted or extend beyond the orifice (exserted).
octagonal pores are compound sub circular complex pores with the central area taking the shape of a star (up to 8 points).
operculum is the plate or lid-like structure that partly or completely covers the vasiform orifice.
reniform septate pore is a simple kidney shaped pore with a raised or flush.
septate simple pore is a circular or sub circular. slightly tuberculate and faintly porous pore with a rim much darker than the center and a bar-like line extending bisecting the pore.
Spine vs. setae: generally, if there is no basal circle indicating a socket, the structure is a spine [Manzari & Alemansoor 2005: 5].
terminal (apical) appendages of the legs consists of either an adhesion pad or a claw: the apical terminal appendages of the Aleurodicinae subfamily consists of claws (hook-like) from stages 2 through 5. The apical terminal appendages of the Aleyrodinae subfamily consists of "adhesion pads" (cushion-like and usually hyaline structures) from stages 2 through 4. Paired claws replace the pads and the single claws in the adult stage.
vasiform orifice is the dorsal anal opening on the last abdominal segment; covered by the plate-like operculum enclosing partly or completely the lingula.
wide-rimmed pores are circular or sub circular pores with the rim as wide or wider than the center's diameter.