Glossary of Terms



Aciculate- covered with narrow, more or less parallel ridges.

Acute- pointed; terminating in or forming less than a 90-degree angle.

Acuminate- tapering to a long point.

Anterior- front; in front of; in the direction toward the head.

Apex- the part of a joint or segment that is opposite the base by which it is attached; the posterior portion of the elytra; the anterior portion of the pronotum. The distal portion of the antennal club.

Apical- pertaining to the end, tip, or outermost part of a structure.

Arcuate- arched, bow-like.

Armature- sclerotized teeth, processes or coarse sculpturing.

Asperate- roughened; having the surface finely or moderately roughened with acute elevations or asperites.

Asperities- surface roughenings, dot-like sharp elevations or teeth small or moderate surface roughenings; from coarse granules to prominent elevations, especially the elevations on the anterior portion of the pronotum.

Base- the part of any appendage or structure that is nearest the body; the posterior portion of the pronotum; the anterior portion of the elytra.

Bilobed- divided into two lobes.

Bisinuate- having two sinuations or undulations.

Bristle- a short, stiff hair.

Capitate- refers to a structure in which the distal portion is swollen, forming a subglobular mass.

Carina, carinae- a narrow ridge or keel.

Cirrus- a group of setae that form a conspicuous, slender pencil.

Club- the enlarged terminal part of the antennae.

Confused- irregular; punctures, crenulations, or pubescence not in regular rows.

Contiguous- touching or in contact [when in a normal position].

Constricted- evenly but abruptly narrowed.

Corneous- of a hard, smooth horn-like texture.

Costa- an elevated ridge, rounded at it's crest.

Coxa, coxae- the basal segment of a leg by which it is attached to the body.

Crenulations- blunt, rounded teeth or scallops; evenly rounded and deeply curved.

Declivity- the usually steeply sloped posterior face of the elytra, or the steeply sloping anterior face of the pronotum.

Declivous- sloping gradually downward.

Disc- the central portion of a major anatomical area, such as the pronotum or elytra; the elytral disc extends laterally from the suture to about the fourth striae and backward to near the declivity.

Distal- pertaining to the portion of an appendage farthest from the body.

Dorsal- of or pertaining to the back or upper side.

Elytron, elytra- the hardened or thickened front wings of beetles which serve as coverings of the hind wings, usually meeting in a straight line down the dorsum.

Emarginate- with a notch cut from the margin, as in a n eye, or the distal margin of a tarsal segment.

Emargination- a notch breaking the margin.

Entire- with a smooth, unbroken outline, as in an eye; without emargination.

Episternal area- pertaining to the anterior area of the lateral or pleural portion of a thoracic segment directly above the coxa.

Epistoma- the lower portion of the front of the head between the frons and the mouth cavity.

Epistomal brush-  a linear arrangement of hairs arising from the epistoma.

Epistomal margin- the anterior or dorsal margin of the mouth cavity.

Epistomal process- a flattened or convex dorsal prominence arising from the base of the epistoma, with its apex reaching toward the epistomal margin.

Face- the outer surface of any part.

Femur- the leg segment between the trochanter and the tibia.

Frons- the front part of the head extending from the epistoma to the upper level of the eyes.

Funicle- the portion of the antenna between the scape and the club, comprised of one to seven segments.

Glabrous- without hair or setae.

Granulate- having small granules on the surface.

Impressed- imprinted, as if by pressure; having a depressed area or making.

Intercoxal- between the coxae.

Interstriae- the area between two elytral striae.

Lateral- of or pertaining to the side.

Medial, median- in the middle; along the body’s midline.

Mesad, mesally- toward the midline of the body.

Mesothoracic- belonging to the middle (second) segment of the thorax.

Metathoracic- belonging to the posterior (third) segment of the thorax.

Metepisternum- a narrow triangular plate situated laterally, between the coxae and the elytra, visible for its entire length in all genera except those in the tribes of Pityophthorini and Corthylini.

Oblique- slanted, diagonal, or inclined; neither parallel nor perpendicular.

Obliquely truncate- applied to the antennal club, club thickened at the base with the apical segments appearing telescoped at an angle.

Obsolete- not present.

Obtuse- blunt; an angle greater than 90 degrees.

Plano- flat.

Posterior- behind or hindmost part.

Posterolateral- having to do with the rear or side area.

Pro- anterior; a prefix meaning before, in front of.

Process- an unarticulated prolongation of any part of the surface.

Procurved- arcuate curving anteriorly; with the convexity in front (n-shaped); applied to antennal club sutures.

Pronotum- the dorsal piece, or sclerite, of the prothorax.

Prosternum- the ventral piece, or sclerite, of the prothorax.

Prosternal intercoxal piece- the median, intercoxal extension of the prosternum.

Prothorax- the first segment of the thorax.

Protibia- the tibia of the pair of legs closest to the head.

Pubescence- a dense or sparse covering of fine hair.

Punctate- bearing punctures.

Puncture- a small impression on the surface of the body, like that made by a needle.

Recumbent- reclining, not erect, applied to hair or scales.

Recurved- arcuate; curving posteriorly with the convexity behind (U-shaped); applied to antennal club sutures.

Reticulate- marked with a network of fine, impressed or elevated lines.

Rugose- wrinkled.

Scale- one of numerous flattened outgrowths of cuticle covering part or all of the pronotum, elytra, or both.

Scape- the elongate first segment of the antennae.

Sclerite- a piece of the body wall bounded by sutures.

Sclerotized- hardened.

Sculpture- the elevated or impressed markings on the surface of the body.

Scutellum- the small circular or triangular piece between the bases of the elytra

Seta, setae- a short, stiff, pointed hair.

Setose, Setiferous- having setae.

Sinuate- undulating.

Sinuation- an undulating margin.

Spatulate- wide and flat.

Spine- a thorn-shaped, generally pointed process emerging from a surface, normally longer than wide; an immovable, elongate, acute process.

Sternite- the ventral piece, or sclerite, of a body segment, particularly of the abdomen

Stria, striae- the parallel, impressed, usually punctured lines on the elytra from base to apex, a narrow, impressed line, usually longitudinal.

Sub- used as a prefix meaning slightly less than.

Sulcate- deeply furrowed, channeled or grooved.

Suture- generally a groove or narrow membranous area between sclerites; the longitudinal line on the dorsum marking the junction of the elytra; a line of juncture between two antennal club segments.

Tarsus, tarsi- the leg segment between the femur and the tarsus.

Tibia- the fourth leg segment from the body from which the tarsus (foot) originates.

Tooth- a short, acute process, often conical.

Transverse- crosswise; at right angles to the longitudinal.

Trochanter- the leg segment between the coxa and the femur.

Tubercle- a coarse granule or small tooth; a bump, or generally rounded process emerging from a surface,usually not longer than wide.

Uniseriate- in one row.

Variegated- having discrete markings of different colors.

Ventrad- toward the underside of the body; downward.

Vestiture- general surface covering of hairs or scales.

Definitions from James LaBonte, Oregon Dept. of Agriculture and adaptations from Borer et al. 1989, and Torre-Bueno, 1973.

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