The hindmost of the three main body divisions of an insect.

Winged forms of termites and other insects that are usually wingless as adults

in the direction of, pertaining or attached to the anus or to the last segment of the abdomen

longitudinal unbranched vein extending from base of insect wing to the outer margin below the cubitus vein

(pl., antennae). Pair of segmented appendages located on the head and usually sensory in function - the 'feelers'.



Any small, closed structure containing another. Head capsule refers to the head as a whole unit

The larva of a moth, butterfly, or saw-fly.

radial ridges

the curved spines or hooks on the prolegs of caterpillars

the fifth longitudinal vein of the insect wing, extending from the base and usually two-branched before reaching the outer margin



when larvae crawl inside the leaf sheath and tunnel into the heart of young shoots, killing the growing point, which leads to browning and wilting of the youngest leaves.

A period of suspended animation of regular occurrence in the lives of many insects, especially in the young stages.



the hardened or leathery or chitinous forewings of beetles that serve as covers to the hindwings and commonly meet in a straight line down the middle when the beetle is at a standstill

(pl., elytra ). The tough, horny forewing of a beetle or an earwig.



Thread-like or hair-like, applied especially to antennae.



The anterior body region of insects which bears the mouthparts, eyes, and antennae.



(pl., larvae ).Name given to a young insect which is markedly different from the adult: caterpillars and fly maggots are good examples.

(sing., larva ).Name given to a young insects which is markedly different from the adult: caterpillars and fly maggots are good examples.



bead-like antennae



Name given to the young stages of those insects which undergo a partial metamorphosis. The nymph is usually quite similar to the adult except that its wings are not fully developed. It normally feeds on the same kind of food as the adult.



The tubular or valved egg-laying apparatus of a female insect: concealed in many insects, but extremely large among the bush-crickets and some parasitic hymenopterans.



A parasite (usually of insects) which kills its host. The latter are often used in biological control programs to suppress pest populations.

A substance secreted by an animal which when released externally in small amounts causes a specific reaction, such as stimulation to mate with or supply food to a receiving individual of the same species.

hardened – sclerotized – areas that indicate points of muscle attachment

small, flat, hardened area of skin from which one or more setae (hair-like extensions of the integument) arise

the fleshy unjointed appendages on the abdomen of caterpillars that serve as legs. In adult insects, it refers to the anterior leg.

The dorsal surface or sclerite of the first thoracic segment.



A beak or snout, applied especially to the piercing mouth-parts of bugs and the elongated snouts of weevils.



A grub like larva having a thick, soft body with a well-developed head and strong thoracic legs but with no legs on the hind region: often permanently curved into a C.

(pl., setae ) slender, hair-like extension on the surface (epidermis) of the insect body. They are hollow, often sensory and can vary greatly in shape and colour.

(sing., seta ) slender, hair-like extensions on the surface (epidermis) of the insect body. They are hollow, often sensory and can vary greatly in shape and colour.

One of the breathing pores - openings of the tracheal system - through which diffusion of gases takes place. They usually occur on the third thoracic segment and all the abdominal segments.

on caterpillars, tergite of the terminal segment that bears the anus.



upper or dorsal surface of any body segment; dorsal sclerite or part of a segment

The middle of the three major divisions of the insect body. The legs and wings (if present) are always attached to the thorax .

A small knob-like or rounded projection.