Click on images to enlarge
small plant (Photo: Gerald J. Lenhard, Louiana State Univ, Bugwood.org)
flower head (Photo: Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, Bugwood.org)
tree in flower (Photo: Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, Bugwood.org)
in fruit (Photo: Ted Bodner, Southern Weed Science Society, Bugwood.org)
flower head (Photo: Dave Powell, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org)
flower head (Photo: Richard Webb, Self-employed horticulurist, Bugwood.org)
foliage (Photo: Richard Webb, Self-employed horticulurist, Bugwood.org)
infestation (Photo: Richard Webb, Self-employed horticulurist, Bugwood.org)
Sambucus nigra var. canadensis (L.) B.L.Turner; Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis (L.) Bolli
American black elderberry, elderberry, common elderberry, American black elderberry, American elder, American elderberry.
The editors could not find information on the naturalised distribution of Sambucus nigra outside eastern Africa.
Sambucus nigra is present in Tanzania and is naturalised in parts of Kenya and Uganda (A.B.R. Witt pers. obs.). There are no herbarium records of the S. nigra in East Africa, though this does not necessarily mean that it is absent from this country.
Grows in disturbed areas of rain forest, along roads, disturbed sites, degraded land, fence rows and on the sites of former settlements.
Stems are multiple, branching from the base, with a large whitish pith.
Each fruit contains about 4-5 seeds, each about 3 mm long.
The fruits of Sambucus nigra can be used in wine and jelly or for making dye. They also have medicinal properties.
The precise management measures adopted for any plant invasion will depend upon factors such as the terrain, the cost and availability of labour, the severity of the infestation and the presence of other invasive species.
The best form of invasive species management is prevention. If prevention is no longer possible, it is best to treat the weed infestations when they are small to prevent them from establishing (early detection and rapid response). Controlling the weed before it seeds will reduce future problems. Control is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are tackled. Consistent follow-up work is required for sustainable management.
The editors could not find any specific information on the control of this species.
Not listed as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.
Mairura, F.S., 2007. Sambucus nigra L. [Internet] Record from Protabase. Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l'Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands. < http://database.prota.org/search.htm>. Accessed 25 August 2011.
Wikipedia contributors. "Sambucus canadensis." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Accessed January 2011.
Agnes Lusweti, National Museums of Kenya; Emily Wabuyele, National Museums of Kenya, Paul Ssegawa, Makerere University; John Mauremootoo, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Secretariat - UK.
This fact sheet is adapted from The Environmental Weeds of Australia by Sheldon Navie and Steve Adkins, Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland. We recognise the support from the National Museums of Kenya, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) - Tanzania and Makerere University, Uganda. This activity was undertaken as part of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project (Taxonomy for Development in East Africa).
BioNET-EAFRINET Regional Coordinator: [email protected]