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Asecodes Förster, 1856

  A. delucchii, female
















Species with or without rows of setae radiating from stigmal vein; however, all species recorded on leafminers have fore wing with 2 or 3 row of setae radiating from stigmal vein. Submarginal vein (SMV) with 2 setae dorsally. Postmarginal vein (PMV) very short, usually shorter than stigmal vein (STV).
Flagellum usually with 2 funicular segments and club 3-segmented, although it is sometimes difficult to separate funicle from club. Male scape with sensory area on scape restricted placed ventrally.
Head with distinct occipital groove; fronto-facial suture distinctly separated from anterior ocellus and V or Y-shaped.
Mesosoma usually slightly sculptured. Pronotum very short and without transverse carina. Notauli usually incomplete. Mesoscutum and scutellum without longitudinal grooves; scutellum with a pair of setae. Propodeum smooth, shiny and without median carina and plica.
Petiole not distinct.
Coloration green to dark, usually metallic.




Asecodes is a small genus (less than 20 species) cosmopolitan in distribution (Noyes, 2003).




Asecodes delucchii (Boucek), A. erxias (Walker) and at least another species undescribed are known as occasional parasitoids of Lepidoptera and Diptera leafminers in the Oriental and Holarctic Regions (Noyes, 2001). Asecodes species are also eggs parasites and larval endoparasitoids of Coleoptera Chrysomelidae and Galerucinae, and Diptera Tephritidae, and secondary parasitoids of Hymenoptera Tenthredinidae and Eulophidae (Schauff, 1991; Noyes, 2001).



Asecodes belongs to the subfamily Entedoninae by having 2 setae on submarginal vein, scutellum with a pair of setae, fronto-facial suture distinctly separated from anterior ocellus and male scape with sensory pores placed at the ventral edge.
Hansson (1996) synonymized Ionympha Graham and Teleopterus Silvestri with Asecodes. Before this paper, Asecodes was separated from Teleopterus because Teleopterus had 2-3 lines of setae radiating from the stigmal vein, and these lines are lacking in Asecodes. The recognition of Asecodes species which have the lines of setae radiating from the stigmal vein is quite simple; however, recognising the species which lack these lines can be much more difficult. This is particularly true in separating them from some of their close relatives such as Neochrysocharis and Closterocerus. Fortunately, all the species of Asecodes which have been reared from leafminers have the 2-3 rows of setae (e.g. would have previously been placed in Teleopterus). Further discussion of how to separate Asecodes from closely related genera can be found in Hansson (1990; 1996), Boucek (1988, as both Teleopterus and Asecodes), Schauff (1991, as both Teleopterus and Asecodes). Further study will be required to gain a complete understanding of relationships in these groups. A useful key to distinguish some Asecodes (as Teleopterus) is provided by Hansson (1994b).


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October 2005
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