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Chrysocharis Förster, 1856
 
   
  C. longitarsus, female
     
   
 
 
     
     

Distribution

     

Biology

     

Comments

     
       
           

Classification

 

Subfamily

Tribe

Entedoninae

Entedonini

           
 
 
 

Diagnosis

 


   
 
Fore wing with submarginal vein (SMV) with 2 setae dorsally. Postmarginal vein (PMV) present and at least 1.5 times as long as stigmal vein length (STV).
Flagellum with 3 anelli, of which the 3rd is enlarged, triangular and usually with setae. Funicle with usually 3 funicular segments and club 2-segmented. Male scape with sensory area on scape on ventral margin.
Head without a sulcus surrounding ocellar triangle. Fronto-facial suture distinctly separated from anterior ocellus and usually V or Y-shaped, rarely transverse. Antennal scrobes joining below fronto-facial suture in female.
Mesosoma slightly to strongly sculptured. Pronotum with or without transverse carina. Notauli usually incomplete. Mesoscutum and scutellum without longitudinal grooves; scutellum with a single pair of setae. Propodeum smooth, shiny and usually without complete median carina, although sometimes it may be difficult to define whether in same cases the propodeal median carina is complete or not. Plica normally absent.
Petiole distinct, short or very long.
Coloration mainly green metallic, without yellow markings.

 

 
         
     
 
 

Distribution


 

Chrysocharis is a large genus, cosmopolitan in distribution, although it is most common in the Holarctic region (Noyes, 2001).

         
 
 

Biology

     

The species of this genus are primary endoparasitoids of larval or pupae of leafminers, mainly Agromyzidae, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, and sometimes of Diptera other than agromyzids (Noyes, 2001).

       
                                       
 
 

Comments

 
Chrysocharis belongs to the subfamily Entedoninae by having 2 setae on submarginal vein, scutellum with a pair of setae, fronto-facial suture distinctly separated from anterior ocellus and male scape with sensory pores placed at the ventral edge.
The variation of the condition of the pronotum (distinctly carinate or not) and of the propodeum (with a complete median carina or absent or incomplete) may sometimes cause mistakes in the recognition of Chrysocharis: however, the best character to distinguish it from other Entedoninae is the very long postmarginal vein (at least 1.5 times as stigmal vein length), which is unusual for this subfamily. Among Entedoninae included in the key, Apleurotropis and Pleurotroppopsis can be also distinguished by having a longitudinal groove posteriorly on mesoscutum, and Pleurotroppopsis by having a pair of longitudinal grooves on scutellum; Asecodes, Trisecodes and Closterocerus by having one or more rows of setae from stigmal vein; Pediobius and Proacrias by having paired median carina.
Finally, Derostenus Westwood can be difficult to distinguish from Chrysocharis and a good usable character may be the presence of a sulcus surrounding the ocellar triangle (absent in Chrysocharis).
Keys to this genus are provided by Hansson for Palearctic (1985), New World (1987), Nearctic (1995b) and Mexico (1997); by Ikeda (1996) for Japan; by Khan (1985) for India; by Kostjukov (2000b) for Russia; by Yoshimoto (1973a; b) for North America.
Chrysocharis is one of the most commonly and successfully used biological control agents of agromyzid leafminers. It is particularly used in greenhouse conditions (Woets et al., 1985).
                       
                                                             
                         
 
                                                             
     
 
 

 

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October 2005
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