Home   Open the Key     References  
           
 
   
C. trifasciatus, male
  C. mirabilis, female
     
   
 
 
     
     

Distribution

     

Biology

     

Comments

     
       
           

Classification

 

Subfamily

Tribe

Entedoninae

Entedonini

           
 
 
 

Diagnosis

 


   
 
Fore wing with a single row of setae departing from stigmal vein, and quite often with transverse dark stripes.
Submarginal vein (SMV) with 2 setae dorsally. Postmarginal vein (PMV) present and at most as long as stigmal vein (STV).
Antennal scape and flagellum generally slightly flattened. Flagellum with usually 2 (sometimes 3) funicular segments and club 3-segmented (club 2-segmented if funicle has 3 segments). Male scape with sensory area on scape restricted to a small area on apical part of scape (difficult to recognize on normal microscope).
Head with fronto-facial suture distinctly separated from anterior ocellus and V- or Y-shaped.
Pronotum most of the time without a distinct transverse carina, although it is present in C. trifasciatus Westwood. The condition of the notauli in Closterocerus can be difficult to interpret: although generally incomplete, they may appear complete, or rarely curving to axillae. Mesoscutum and scutellum usually strongly sculptured and without longitudinal grooves; scutellum with a single pair of setae. Propodeum smooth, shiny and without median carina and plica.
Petiole not distinct.
Coloration mainly dark-blue metallic.

 
         
     
 
 

Distribution


 

Closterocerus is a moderate sized genus which is cosmopolitan in distribution (Noyes, 2001).

         
 
 

Biology

     
Species of this genus are mainly primary larval endoparasitoids of leafmining Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera. They are occasionally hyperparasitoids on braconids or other Chalcidoidea (Schauff, 1991; Noyes, 2001).
       
                                       
 
 

Comments

 
Closterocerus belongs to the subfamily Entedoninae by having 2 setae on submarginal vein, scutellum with a pair of setae, fronto-facial suture distinctly separated from anterior ocellus and male scape with sensory pores placed at the ventral edge.
Among Entedoninae included in the key, Closterocerus can be easily distinguished by having a single row of setae from stigmal vein, and lacking strong carinae or plicae on the propodeum. Other genera which attack leafminers, have a relatively unsculptured propodeum, and have lines of setae radiating from the stigmal vein are Trisecodes (with 3 tarsal segments and 4 lines of setae radiating from stigmal vein) and Asecodes (with 2-3 lines of setae radiating from stigmal vein in species which attack leafminers). Among genera without a row of setae coming from the stigmal vein, Neochrysocharis is probably one of the closest genera to Closterocerus, as they have fronto-facial suture Y-shaped and similar thorax and propodeum. Discussion of the relationship between these genera were provided by Hansson (1990; 1995a). Recent keys to Closterocerus provided by Hansson (1994a) for the Nearctic species.
                       
                                                             
                         
 
                                                             
     
 
 

 

Copyright 2005, CSIRO Australia
October 2005
webmaster@ento.csiro.au
Use of this web site and information
available from it is subject to our
Legal Notice and Disclaimer