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Dicladocerus Westwood, 1832

 
   
D. westwoodii, male
  D. westwoodii, female
     
   
 
 
     
     

Distribution

     

Biology

     

Comments

     
       
           

Classification

 

Subfamily

Tribe

Eulophinae

Eulophini

           
 
 
 

Diagnosis

 


   
 
Fore wing with submarginal vein (SMV) with more than 3 setae dorsally. Postmarginal vein (PMV) 1.5 times longer than stigmal vein.
Scape slender, reaching anterior ocellus. Female funicle and club 3-segmented. Male funicle 4-segmented with a long branch on each of the first two segments.
Malar sulcus present and straight. Fronto-facial suture weak and adjacent to anterior ocellus.
Pronotum, mesoscutum and scutellum densely sculptured. Notauli incomplete. Scutellum with two pairs of setae and a pair of weak longitudinal lines. Propodeum with median carina and plica usually complete in female, but often absent or incomplete in male. Petiole not distinct.
Body colour metallic blue-green to bright golden-green.

 
         
     
 
 

Distribution


 

The species of this genus were recorded in Holarctic, Mesoamerican, Middle East, Neotropical, Oriental and regions (Noyes, 2001).

         
 
 

Biology

     

The species of this genus are mainly primary parasitoids of several Lepidoptera (Arctiidae, Argyresthiidae, Carposinidae, Coleophoridae, Gelechiidae, Pyralidae, Psychidae, Scythridae, Tortricidae, Thaumetopoeidae, Yponomeutidae). Other hosts are Diptera Tephritidae and Ephydridae.
D. antennalis, D. indicus, D. liriomyza, D. viggiani, described by Khan, D. vulgaris Yoshimoto and D. westwoodii Westwood were recorded on leafmining Agromyzidae (Noyes, 2001).

       
                                       
 
 

Comments

 
Dicladocerus belongs to the Eulophini due to the following characters: funicle 3-4 segmented, propleura meeting posteriorly and covering prosternum, 2 pairs of scutellar setae and 3 or more setae on submarginal vein, postmarginal vein at least 1.5 times length of stigmal vein. Within the Eulophini, Dicladocerus is a relatively easy genus to recognise: the combination of funicle 3-segmented in female and the male antenna with 2 branches is not very common. Sometimes Pnigalio has a 3-segmented female funicle as well (Yoshimoto, 1983), but the male funicle always has 3 branches.
Dicladocerus may be distinguished from the other Eulophini genera attacking leafmining flies using the following characters: it has a pair of longitudinal lines on scutellum (absent in Hemiptarsenus, Pnigalio and Sympiesis), doesn’t have costula on the propodeum (present in Pnigalio and Ratzeburgiola) and doesn’t have 2 median carinae (H-or X-shaped) on the propodeum (present in Stenomesius).
Keys to Dicladocerus are available for North American (Yoshimoto, 1976) and for Indian species (Khan, 1995).
                       
                                                             
                         
 
                                                             
     
 
 

 

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