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Diagnosis - Scutellum
with 2 pairs of setae (or more); with
paired submedian lines, but never with two pairs (submedian and sublateral
vein with 3 or more setae on dorsal surface. Postmarginal
vein (PMV) developed, at least half as long as stigmal (STV) and
often longer. Funicle with two
segments (rarely three).
funicle may be branched.
Classification and distribution
- The Eulophinae have generally been considered to be the most primitive
of the subfamilies of the Eulophidae (Boucek,
1988; Schauff et al.,
1997); however, recent studies based on molecular and morphological
evidence indicate that the Eulophinae are one of the most derived
subfamilies (Gauthier et
al., 2000). The subfamily is divided into three tribes, Cirrospilini,
Eulophini (including what have been treated as Elachertini and Euplectrini),
and Elasmini (Gauthier et
al., 2000). It should be noted that in most recent works
(e.g. Boucek, 1988; Gibson
et al., 1997) Elasmini has been treated as a separate
family; however, evidence presented by Gauthier
et al. (2000) supports its placement in the Eulophinae,
as well as the removal several tribes from the Eulophinae that had
been placed there by previous authors (e.g. Boucek,
1988). Leafminer parasitoids are found among all three of these
tribes; however, parasitoids of leafmining agromyzids are only known
from the Eulophini and Cirrospilini.
Identification - Keys to
genera of Eulophinae are available for Australasia (Boucek,
1988) and North America (Schauff
et al. 1997). Gauthier
et al. (2000) provided a list all genera in this subfamily.
Noyes (2003) provided an electronic
catalogue for the entire Chalcidoidea.
Biology - Eulophinae are all external parasitoids. Hosts are generally Lepidoptera and other holometabolous insects which are concealed within plant tissue (e.g. leafminers, leafrollers, gall-formers, etc). A few genera attack exposed hosts. There are several well-known genera of leafminer parasitoids within this subfamily, and these are discussed under the separate tribes.