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Subfamily Eulophinae

Diagnosis - Scutellum with 2 pairs of setae (or more); with or without paired submedian lines, but never with two pairs (submedian and sublateral lines). Submarginal vein with 3 or more setae on dorsal surface. Postmarginal vein (PMV) developed, at least half as long as stigmal (STV) and often longer. Funicle with two or four segments (rarely three). Male funicle may be branched.

Classification and distribution - The Eulophinae have generally been considered to be the most primitive of the subfamilies of the Eulophidae (Boucek, 1988; Schauff et al., 1997); however, recent studies based on molecular and morphological evidence indicate that the Eulophinae are one of the most derived subfamilies (Gauthier et al., 2000). The subfamily is divided into three tribes, Cirrospilini, Eulophini (including what have been treated as Elachertini and Euplectrini), and Elasmini (Gauthier et al., 2000). It should be noted that in most recent works (e.g. Boucek, 1988; Gibson et al., 1997) Elasmini has been treated as a separate family; however, evidence presented by Gauthier et al. (2000) supports its placement in the Eulophinae, as well as the removal several tribes from the Eulophinae that had been placed there by previous authors (e.g. Boucek, 1988). Leafminer parasitoids are found among all three of these tribes; however, parasitoids of leafmining agromyzids are only known from the Eulophini and Cirrospilini.

Identification - Keys to genera of Eulophinae are available for Australasia (Boucek, 1988) and North America (Schauff et al. 1997). Gauthier et al. (2000) provided a list all genera in this subfamily. Noyes (2003) provided an electronic catalogue for the entire Chalcidoidea.

Biology - Eulophinae are all external parasitoids. Hosts are generally Lepidoptera and other holometabolous insects which are concealed within plant tissue (e.g. leafminers, leafrollers, gall-formers, etc). A few genera attack exposed hosts. There are several well-known genera of leafminer parasitoids within this subfamily, and these are discussed under the separate tribes.






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October 2005
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