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Pnigalio Schrank, 1802

P. katonis, male P. soemius, head
  P. katonis, female
















Fore wing with submarginal vein with 3 or more setae dorsally. Postmarginal vein distinctly longer (2x or more) than stigmal vein (STV).
Scape slender, sometimes reaching top of vertex. 1-2 anelli. Female funicle 4- and club 2-segmented (rarely funicle and club both 3-segmented). Male funicle 4-segmented with 3 long branches on the first 3 segments.
Vertex, frons, face and clypeus reticulate to smooth and shiny. Malar sulcus present and straight. Fronto-facial suture usually absent.
Notauli absent or incomplete. Mesoscutum reticulate. Scutellum densely sculptured with two pairs of setae and without longitudinal lines. Propodeum smooth and shiny with median carina, plicae and costula complete in female; sometimes costula absent or incomplete in male. Petiole not distinct.
Body colour mainly metallic-green or green with white to brown coloured markings on scape, legs and sometimes on some basal gastral segments.




The species of this genus are recorded on all continents (Noyes, 2001).




Species of Pnigalio are usually primary or secondary ectoparasitoids of leafmining Lepidoptera (mainly), but also Coleoptera and Diptera, or of gallmaking Hymenoptera.
P. agraules (Walker) is a classic example of polyphagy within parasitic Hymenoptera: it is a Mediterranean ectoparasitoid of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and also of Lepidoptera and Diptera leafminers (Noyes, 2001).



Pnigalio belongs to the tribe of Eulophini by having funicle 4 segmented, propleura meeting posteriorly and covering prosternum, 2 pairs of scutellar setae and 3 or more setae on submarginal vein.
Pnigalio and Ratzeburgiola, may be distinguished from other Eulophini (Dicladocerus, Hemiptarsenus, Notanisomorphella Girault, Stenomesius and Sympiesis) by having plicae and a costula on propodeum. These genera may also be distinguished from Pnigalio as follows: Dicladocerus has 2 branches on male funicle and longitudinal lines on scutellum; Hemiptarsenus has a long scape distinctly exceeding apex of vertex; Notanisomorphella has a step-like plica and the propodeum is distinctly sculptured; Stenomesius has yellow coloration, notauli complete, longitudinal lines on scutellum, two median carina H- or X-shaped and doesn’t have branches on male funicle.
Finally, Ratzeburgiola appears to be close to Pnigalio, as they both have plicae and costula on propodeum; however, Ratzeburgiola has notauli which are present (complete or almost complete and converging posteriorly) and the scutellum shiny with sublateral lines (Schauff et al., 1998).
Recent keys to Pnigalio are available for North American species (Yoshimoto, 1983). Older but still useful keys may also be Graham (1959) and Askew (1968) for the British species, and Miller (1970) for the Nearctic region. In those keys however there are several species that have subsequently been renamed or synonymised (Noyes, 2001).


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October 2005
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