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Proacrias Ihering, 1914

 
   
  P. thysanoides, female
     
   
 
 
     
     

Distribution

     

Biology

     

Comments

     
       
           

Classification

 

Subfamily

Tribe

Entedoninae

Entedonini

           
 
 
 

Diagnosis

 


   
 
Fore wing with submarginal vein with 2 setae dorsally. Postmarginal vein (PMV) present and slightly longer than the stigmal vein length (STV).
Antenna with funicle 2- and club 3-segmented in both sexes. Male scape with sensory pores placed at the ventral edge.
Fronto-facial suture distinctly separated from anterior ocellus and Y-shaped.
Thorax strongly sculptured. Pronotum usually with transverse carina, although sometimes it could be difficult to distinguish it. Notauli incomplete or complete, may be present in the form of wide grooves posteriorly. Mesoscutum without median longitudinal groove. Scutellum with a single pair of setae and without lateral longitudinal grooves. Propodeum with 2 median carinae broadly diverging in posterior half of propodeum and turning back posteriorly before reaching posterior margin of propodeum.
Petiole distinct.
Coloration dark to dark-metallic.

 
         
     
 
 

Distribution


 

Proacrias is a small genus (4 species described) present in the Neotropical region (Noyes, 2001).

         
 
 

Biology

     

Proacrias species are parasitoids of Lepidoptera and Diptera leafminers. In particular, P. thysanoides (De Santis) and P. xenodice (Walker) were recorded on agromyzids (Noyes, 2001).

       
                                       
 
 

Comments

 
Proacrias belongs to the subfamily Entedoninae by having 2 setae on submarginal vein, scutellum with a pair of setae, fronto-facial suture distinctly separated from anterior ocellus and male scape with sensory pores placed at the ventral edge.
Important characters to recognise Proacrias can be the combination of the propodeum with 2 median carinae broadly diverging in posterior half of propodeum, the postmarginal vein slightly longer than stigmal vein and the distinct petiole. These characters may be used to separate particularly Proacrias from Achrysocharoides, Neochrysocharis, Chrysocharis, Asecodes, Trisecodes and Closterocerus.
Proacrias usually has a distinct pronotal carina: among Entedoninae with pronotum carinate Apleurotropis and Pleurotroppopsis may be distinguished from Proacrias by having mesoscutum with median longitudinal groove placed posteriorly and a single propodeal median carina, Zaommomentedon Girault by having mesoscutum and scutellum with complete and distinct median groove, Platocharis Kerrich by having diverging submedian carinae or plicae and transverse carina between submedian carina and plica, Kratoysma Boucek by having scutellum strongly sculptured with broad median groove anteriorly.
Proacrias will be most difficult to separate from Pediobius. Both genera have the propodeum with paired median carinae which diverge posteriorly. Both genera have a plica on the propodeum, although this is generally more distinct in Pediobius. Pediobius always has a distinct collar on the pronotum, this collar can be present or absent in Proacrias. Proacrias has 2 funicular segments, while Pediobius usually has funicle 3-segmented. In Pediobius the postmarginal vein is quite short; in Proacrias the postmarginal vein is variable, but can be longer than the stigmal vein. One character that seems to be able to separate these genera is that in Pediobius the median carinae on the propodeum, after diverging, continue without turning to the posterior margin of the propodeum, there is a complete carina on the posterior margin of the propodeum between the median carina and the plica, and the posterior margin of the propodeum is extended into a small neck (nucha) medially. In Proacrias the median carinae turn back posteriorly rather abruptly and define a trapezoidal area, there is not a carina along the posterior margin of the propodeum, and the posterior margin of the propodeum is not extended into a neck medially.
A key to the 4 species is provided by Boucek (1977).
                       
                                                             
                         
 
                                                             
     
 
 

 

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