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Pronotalia Gradwell, 1957

P. carlinarum, male
  P. carlinarum, female
















Fore wing with submarginal vein (SMV) with 3-6 setae dorsally. Postmarginal vein (PMV) reduced.
Female funicle 3- and male 4-segmented. Male scape slightly swollen and with plaque on its ventral side.
Malar sulcus absent. Toruli inserted below the lowest margins of the eyes. Transverse suture present on vertex, running from eye to eye and another one immediately behind the ocellar triangle.
Notauli complete. Pronotum elongate, equal to or slightly longer then scutellum. Midlobe of mesoscutum with a single row of adnotaular setae and without longitudinal line. Scutellum with two pairs of setae and a single pair of longitudinal lines. Propodeum without median carina. Petiole not distinct.
Gaster with cercal setae subequal in length.
Body brown to black, without pale markings.




The species of this genus were recorded in the Holarctic region and Africa (Noyes, 2001).




Pronotalia species are gregarious parasitoids of Diptera Tephritidae and occasionally of Chloropidae and Agromyzidae as well (Graham, 1991; La Salle, 1994).



Pronotalia belongs to the subfamily of Tetrastichinae by having female funicle 3 and male 4-segmented, notauli complete, ventral plaque on male scape and postmarginal vein reduced.
Pronotalia, having a single pair of longitudinal lines on scutellum and by not having malar sulcus, may be easily recognisable from the other Tetrastichinae considered in this key.
This genus appears however very close to Crataepus Förster, Kocourekia Boucek, Melittobia Westwood and Tachinobia Boucek, with which it shares the following characters: malar sulcus absent, body dorsoventrally flattened and with a relatively elongate pronotum and propodeum, midlobe of mesoscutum without a median line, submarginal vein with 3-6 dorsal setae. Keys to separate these genera have been provided by Gradwell (1957), Graham (1987; 1991), La Salle (1994) and Schauff et al. (1997).
Keys to Pronotalia are available for the European (Graham, 1991) and, more in particular, for the Turkish species (Doganlar, 1993).


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October 2005
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