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Zagrammosoma Ashmead, 1904

Z. lineaticeps, female Z. sp., head
  Z. sp., female
















Fore wing with submarginal vein with 3 or more setae dorsally. Postmarginal vein present but short: less than 0.5 stigmal vein (STV) length.
Scape not reaching apex of vertex. Antenna with usually two anelli; funicle 2-segmented in both sexes and club 3-segmented.
Head usually without fronto-facial suture and with a transverse short groove from eye margin to scrobal cavity about halfway between ocellus and torulus. Malar sulcus present and straight. Vertex strongly vaulted: it extends more than 1/3 of eye length above the eye.
Mesosoma usually with fine dense reticulation. Axillae (ax) situated anteriorly to the posterior margin of the mesoscutum and elongated. Notauli (not) curving to axillae (ax). Scutellum with 2 pair of setae and with 1 pair of longitudinal grooves, which however may be sometimes faint and difficult to see. Propodeum usually without a complete median carina and without plicae. Petiole not distinct.
Coloration generally yellowish to brownish, with longitudinal black stripes.




This genus was recorded in the Australasian, Holarctic, Neotropics, Oceanic and Oriental regions (Noyes, 2001).




The species of this genus are ectoparasitoids of leafmining Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera.
Host associations in Zagrammosoma appear to be based on niche specialization (leafminers) rather than a taxonomic specialization. Z. americanum Girault, Z. latilineatum Ubaidillah, Z. lineaticeps (Girault), Z. mirum Girault, Z. multilineatum (Ashmead) and Z. talitzkii (Boucek) have been recorded on Agromyzidae leafminers (Noyes, 2001).



Zagrammosoma may be distinguished from the other Cirrospilini included in the key, with which it shares funicle 2-segmented in both sexes, propleura separated posteriorly, submarginal vein with 3 or more setae dorsally and 2 pairs of scutellar setae, by having head vaulted and notauli curving to axillae. Only Cirrospilus variegatus group has the head vaulted, but it can be distinguished by having notauli complete and reaching posterior margin of mesoscutum.
Although Zagrammosoma seems to be well defined, its exact limits and definition are not clear. For example, Yefremova (1995) placed C. variegatus (Masi) and C. crowei Kerrich under Zagrammosoma, and Kurashev (1991) placed C. talitzkii Boucek in Zagrammosoma; Noyes (2001) has both crowei and talitzkii as belonging to Cirrospilus. We consider both crowei and talitzkii as belonging to Zagrammosoma, however do not consider C. variegatus as belonging to Zagrammosoma.
Zagrammosoma is quite close to Cirrospilus, and differences between them have been discussed by Boucek (1988), La Salle (1989), Hansson and La Salle (1996) and Ubaidillah et al (2000). However, more work is probably necessary to understand the relationship between those two genera, as well as the “variegatusgroup of species of Cirrospilus.


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October 2005
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