This is a key to the native and naturalized ferns of the Hawaiian Islands. There are 145 native species of ferns of which 111 are endemic and 34 and indigenous. In addition, there are 18 known endemic hybrids and 37 naturalized taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, and cultivars).
Amanda L. Vernon and Tom A. Ranker
University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa
Vernon, A. L. and T. A. Ranker. 2013. Current status of the ferns and lycophytes of the Hawaiian Islands. American Fern Journal 103: 59–111.
Wood, K. R. and W. L. Wagner. 2017. Athyrium haleakalae (Athyriaceae), a new rheophytic fern species from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands: with notes on its distribution, ecology, and conservation.