Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi


    Paraleyrodes  bondari Peracchi  [Peracchi,  1971: 146-148][Martin, 1996: 1856]. 

Biology: Recently established in Hawaii attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis [Kumashiro by personal communication).   Impact, control by natural enemies unknown.  Found on the underside of the leaf [Peracchi, 1971].  

Host : Bromeliaceae: Appolonius barbujana [Martin, 1996: 1856];  Lauraceae: Ocotea foetens  [Martin, 1996: 1856],  Persea americana   [Martin, 1996: 1856];  Malvaceae: Hibiscus [Kumashiro, 2004 email message];  Myrtaceae:  Eugenia uniflora [Martin, 1996: 1856];   Rutaceae: Citrus  [Peracchi,  1971: 146-148] Citrus  sinensis, C. reticulata,  C. limon [Martin, 1996: 1856].

Distribution:  Australasian: Hawaii [Kumashiro & Martin 2004 personal communication], Taiwan [Martin 2004 Zootaxa: 65];   Nearctic:  USA (California & Florida)  [Martin 2004 Zootaxa: 65];  Neotropical:  Belize [Martin 2004 Zootaxa: 65],  Brazil  [Martin 2004 Zootaxa: 65][Peracchi,  1971: 146-148][Martin, 1996: 1856], Honduras [Martin 2004 Zootaxa: 65], Venezuela [Martin 2004 Zootaxa: 65];  Palaearctic: Madeira Islands  [Martin 2004 Zootaxa: 65][Martin, 1996: 1856][Martin, 2000][S.E.L.],  Comoro Archipelago [Martin 2004 Zootaxa: 65]; Mauritius [Martin 2004 Zootaxa: 65];   Reunion Island [Martin 2004 Zootaxa: 65][Martin, 2000][S.E.L.].

Natural Enemies: Natural enemies in Brazil include Chrysopidae: Neuroptera and Coccinellidae: Coleoptera [Peracchi, 1971].

Taxonomy:   The large cephalic and posterior four abdominal compound pores up to 40 μm in diameter;  with distinctive petal-like ovoid cellular facets of the outer annulus with about 10-12 cells close to a ring of rod-like splines.

Last four abdominal compound pores associated with the following number of simple discoidal pores:  compound pore # 3 has 2 to 3 simple discoidal pores,  compound pore # 4 has two discoidal pores, and the last two with one discoidal pore associated with each compound pores.

Two reduced anterior abdominal compound pores both about half the size of the larger abdominal pores (15-20 μm in diameter);  comprised of  7 to 8 stylized flower pedal shaped facets;  first reduced anterior abdominal compound pore closer to the midline than the other abdominal compound pores;  2nd reduced anterior compound pore associated with 3 to 4 simple discoidal pores.

Two anterior and two posterior marginal setae present;  14 pairs of submarginal setae present (3 anterior, 10 lateral, and 1 caudal); 

Related species: This species has the petal-like ovoid cells in common with Paraleyrodes crateraformans and P. singularis.

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