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mines on broccoli (R. Murtiningsih)


aedeagus (L. Semeraro)


aedeagus (dorsal) (L. Semeraro)


male genitalia (L. Semeraro)

Nomenclature

Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau 1851)

Agromyza atricornis Meigen 1830 nomen dubium
Phytomyza geniculata Macquart 1835 nomen dubium
Phytomyza atricornis
(partim) Meigen 1838 sensu Hendel 1920
Phytomyza horticola Goureau 1851
Phytomyza cucumidis Macquart 1855
Phytomyza tropaeoli Dufour 1857
Phytomyza fediae Kaltenbach 1860 
Phytomyza linariae Kaltenbach 1862
Phytomyza pisi Kaltenbach 1864
Phytomyza subaffinis Malloch 1914
Napomyza lactucae Vimmer 1926
Phytomyza bidensivora Séguy 1951
Phytomyza nainiensis Garg 1971

Common name:
pea leafminer

Hosts

Highly polyphagous. Recorded from 268 genera from 36 families in all subclasses but most commonly on Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Asteraceae (Spencer 1989, 1990).

Distribution

Africa: Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Congo Democratic Republic, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Morocco, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe
Asia: China, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
Europe: Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom

Based on data from Crop Protection Compendium (2007).

Key characters

Third antennal segment and palps black. Mesonotum matt grey. Coxae black, femora black with apex yellow, tibiae and tarsi black. Costa ending at vein R4+5, second (outer) cross-vein (dm-cu) absent. This species cannot be distinguished from C. syngenesiae on external morphology but the male gentitalia are different (Griffiths 1967, 1972; Spencer 1973). Distiphallus strongly developed and divergent from base, V shaped.

Notes

The larva forms a narrow, linear mine on the upper or lower leaf surface. Pupation is in the mine (Spencer 1973). Chromatomyia horticola has a much wider host range than C. syngenesiae and would be an important horticultural pest in Australia.  Because of the great difficulty in distinguishing between the two species on external characters (Dempewolf 2004), and because of the widespread distribution of C. syngenesiae in Australia, detection of C. horticola will be difficult and there is a need to have access to a robust molecular diagnostic test to enable all life stages to be identified. The extensive parasitoid fauna attacking C. syngenesiae in Australia (Bjorksten et al. 2005) would be available to attack C. horticola once it became established.

A recent phylogenetic study of the Agromyzidae employing molecular markers (Scheffer et al. 2007) showed that Chromatomyia was in fact a polyphylectic genus, suggesting that this genus should now be included in Phytomyza.

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References

Bjorksten TA, Robinson M & La Salle J (2005). Species composition and population dynamics of leafmining flies and their parasitoids in Victoria. Australian Journal of Entomology 44: 186-91.

Crop Protection Compendium (2007). 2007 Edition © CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Dufour L (1857). Mélanges entomologiques. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (3) 5: 39-70.

Garg PK (1971). Studies on Agromyzidae (Diptera) from the Gangetic Basin. Part V. Descriptions of three new species of Phytomyza Fallkn. Oriental Insects Supplement 1: 247-256.

Goureau CC (1851). Mémoire pour servir à l'histoire des diptères dont les larves minent les feuilles des plantes, et à celle de leurs parasites. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2) 9: 131-76.

Griffiths GCD (1967). Revision of the Phytomyza syngenesiae group (Diptera, Agromyzidae), including species hitherto known as "Phytomyza atricornis Meigen". Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde 177: 1-28.

Griffiths GCD (1972). Comment on Steyskal's note on Phytomyza horticola Goureau and P. syngenesiae (Hardy) (Diptera, Agromyzidae). Entomological News 83: 39-40.

Hendel F (1920). Die paläarktischen Agromyziden: Prodromus einer Monographie. Archiv für Naturgeschichte (A) 84: 109-174.

Kaltenbach JH (1860). Die deutschen Phytophagen aus der Klasse der Insekten. Fortsetzung. Alphabetisches Verzeichniss der deutschen Pflanzengattungen (Buchstabe D-F). Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens 17: 203-260.

Kaltenbach JH (1862). Die Phytophagen aus der Klasse der Insekten. Fortsetzung. Alphabetisches Verzeichniss der deutschen Pflanzengattungen (Buchstabe G-L). Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens 19: 1-106.

Kaltenbach JH (1864). Die Phytophagen aus der Klasse der Insekten. Fortsetzung. Alphabetisches Verzeichniss der deutschen Pflanzengattungen (Buchstabe M-P). Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens 21: 228-404.

Macquart JPM (1835). Histoire naturelle des insectes. Diptères. 2. Roret, Paris 710 pp.

Macquart J (1855). Les plantes herbaceés d'Europe et leurs insects. 2. Partie. Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences, de l'Agriculture et des Artes de Lille (1854): 157-330.

Malloch JR (1914). Formosan Agromyzidae. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 12: 306-336.

Meigen JW (1830). Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. Sechster Theil mit zwölf Kupfertafeln 6: 166-196.

Meigen JW (1838). Systematische Beschreibung der bekannten europäischen zweiflügeligen Insekten. Siebenter Theil oder Supplementband. 7: 396-407.

Séguy E (1951). Dipteres mineurs de Madagascar. Mémoires de l’Institut Scientifique de Madagascar, Tananarive (A) 5: 309-321.

Scheffer SJ, Winkler IS & Wiegmann BM (2007). Phylogenetic relationships within the leaf-mining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) inferred from sequence data from multiple genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42: 756-775.

Spencer KA (1973). Agromyzidae (Diptera) of economic importance. Series Entomologica 9. Dr W Junk, The Hague. 418 pp.

Spencer KA (1989). Leaf miners. In Plant Protection and Quarantine, Vol. 2, Selected Pests and Pathogens of Quarantine Significance (ed. Kahn RP). CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 77-98.

Spencer KA (1990). Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera). Series Entomologica 45. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. 444 pp.

Vimmer A (1926). O novém druhu rodu Napomyza Hal. (Dipt. - Agromyzidae). Uber eine neue Art der Gattung Napomyza Hal. (Dipt. - Agromyzidae). Sborník entomologického oddelení Národního Musea v Praze. 4: 117.

WWW Resources

Chromatomyia horticola in Dempewolf M (2004). Arthropods of Economic Importance - Agromyzidae of the World

Chromatomyia horticolaleaf symptoms in Edmunds R et al. (2008). British leafminers

Chromatomyia horticola in Pitkin B, Ellis W, Plant C & Edmunds (2008). The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

Chromatomyia horticola in Ellis WN (2018). Plant Parasites of Europe - leafminers, galls and fungi

Chromatomyia horticola in Martinez M (2007). Fauna Europaea: Agromyzidae. In Pape T (ed.) (2007) Fauna Europaea: Diptera: Brachycera. Version 1.3 [128298]