General anatomy positioning words
Anterior: towards the front, or head, of the animal.
Posterior: towards the back, or abdomen, of the animal.
Dorsal: the upper surface of the animal.
Ventral: the underside surface of the animal.
Lateral: to the side of the animal.
Anamorphic development: the animal grows by a series of larval stages, moulting in between each stage and adding body segments and legs at each moult.
Words that are found in the factsheets, relating to the morphology, biology or ecology of invertebrates
Anamorphis: relating to anomorphic development
Clitellum: a thickened section of the body near the head that secretes a sac in which the eggs are deposited in earthworms and leeches.
Clypeus: a shield-like plate on the face of insects and other arthropods that normally connects the labrum (upper lip) to the head.
Coxa: the first segment of the leg, joining the leg to the body.
Coxal: relating to the coxa.
Coxopleural segment: small, lateral sclerite, adjoining the coxa.
Dorsoventrally flattened: flattened in the dorsal-ventral plane.
Filiform: thread-like. Filiform antennae are thread-like with uniformly sized segments.
Gonopods: external reproductive organs.
Maxillae: paired structures; part of the mouthparts used for manipulating food.
Maxillipeds: appendages modified to function as accessory mouthparts.
Ocelli: (singluar: ocellus) simple visual structures on the head of insects, either instead of, or as accessory vision to more developed eyes.
Operculum: In molluscs, a 'lid' covering the opening of the shell.
Parapodia: (in Annelida) Paired appendages that are found laterally on the body and are unjointed, often with chaetae.
Parenchymella larvae: a solid and compact larva type, with an outer layer of flagellated cells (cells which have a flagellum, a whip-like organelle) and an inner mass of nonflagellated cells.
Peristaltic (contractions): radially symmetric contractions.
Pharynx: part of the digestive and respiratory system.
Pleurites: plates on the lateral side of the thorax.
Podomeres: segments of a limb.
Proboscis: Tubular mouthparts used for feeding and sucking.
Pupa: a life cycle stage in which the animal undergoes a transformation.
Pupoid: relating to pupa.
Receptaculum seminis: an organ of the female reproductive tract.
Sclerite: a hardened body part.
Setae: (singluar: seta) bristle- or hair-like structures.
Sexual dimorphism: where the male and female of one species are morphologically different.
Spermatophore: a capsule created by the male containing the spermatozoa, generally transfered to the female during copulation.
Spiracle: tracheal openings in the exoskeleton, used for respiration.
Sterum: the sternum is the ventral (lower) portion of the cephalothorax. It consists of a single sclerite situated between the coxa, opposite the carapace.
Tenacipeds legs of body segments 14 and 15, possibly used for mating and capture of prey in the Lithobiomorpha.
Tergite: the hardened plates that make up the tergum.
Tergum: the dorsal section of an arthropod, exluding the head.
Troglobitic: living in near or complete darkness, underneath the ground or in caves.
Parthenogenic: able to produce offspring without fertilisation.
Eversible: able to be turned outward.
Oviparous: an animal that lays eggs, with little or no embryonic development within the mother.
Detrivore: an animal which eats decomposing animal or plant matter.
Polyphagous: feeding on many different types of food.