of eastern NSW

Dung Beetles Glossary

Abdominal spiracle = one of a pair of spiracles on an abdominal segment

Alutaceous = covered with minute cracks; leathery in texture

Annular = ring-shaped

Apex (pl. apices) = the tip or end of any structure

Basal = at the base or nearest to the main body

Bituberculate = with two distinct tubercles

Carinate = keeled

Clypeus = the anterior part of the face, between the frons and the mouthparts (Fig 3)

Clypeal teeth = teeth on the margin of the clypeus (Fig 3)

Cicatrix (pl. cicatrices) = a scar with elevated margins

Concave = hollowed out; the interior of a sphere as opposed to the outer or convex surface

Convergent = becoming closer distally

Convex = the outer curved surface of a segment of a sphere; opposite to concave

Coprophagous = feeding on excrement or on decaying vegetable matter resembling excrement

Coxa (pl. coxae) = the first (basal) segment of the leg (Fig 4)

Crenulate = with the margin finely notched with small, rounded teeth

Declivity = downward slope

Deflexed = abruptly bent downward

Dentate = toothed

Digit = a finger-like structure

Disc = the middle of a defined broad surface (of the elytra, pygidium, pronotum etc.)

Distal = toward the end (of a leg, segment etc.) furthest from the body

Dorsal = the upper surface

Epipleuron (pl. epipleura) = the reflexed lateral edge of the elytron, without striae (Fig 2)

Elytron (pl. elytra) = one of a pair of modified fore-wings of beetles, characteristically rigid, which fit over the abdomen when at rest, covering the hind wings (Fig 2)

Femur (pl. femora) = the third segment of the leg, between the trochanter and the tibia (Fig 4)

Fissure = a crevice or slit

Fossorial = formed for digging or burrowing

Frons = the middle dorsal portion of the head capsule, between the eyes and the clypeus (Fig 3)

Frontoclypeal suture = the suture between the frons and the clypeus (Fig 5)

Fungivorous = feeding on fungi

Gena (pl. genae) = the cheek; the area of the head on each side near the eye  (Fig 5)

Genal suture = the suture defining the part of the head on each side below the eye (Fig 5)

Glabrous = smooth, hairless

Humerus (pl. humeri) = shoulder; basal exterior angle of the elytra (Fig 3)

Hypomeron = the portion of the pronotum that is ventral due to lateral folding

Impunctate = without punctures

Intercoxal process = a median protrusion of the basal segment of the abdomen between the hind coxae (Fig 4)

Interocular = between the eyes

Keel = an elevated ridge or carina

Labium (pl. labia) = the fused second maxillae, forming the floor of the mouth (Fig 1)

Labrum = the upper lip, abutting the clypeus in front of the mouth

Lamellate = leaflike

Lateral = on or relating to the side

Longitudinal = in the direction of the long axis

Mandibles = the first pair of jaws

Maxilla (pl. maxillae) = one of the second pair of jaws

Mesosternum = sternum of mesothorax (Fig 6)

Mesothorax = the second or middle thoracic segment, bearing the elytra and mid legs (Fig 7)

Metasternum = the sternum of the metathorax (Fig 6)

Metathorax = the third thoracic segment, bearing the hind legs and hind wings (Fig 7)

Necrophagous = feeding on dead or decaying animals

Oblique = having a slanting position; not vertical or horizontal or longitudinal

Prehensile = able to grasp or hold

Pronotum = the dorsal part of the prothorax (Fig 2)

Prosternum = the sternum of the prothorax (Fig 6)

Prothorax = the first thoracic segment, bearing the anterior legs, but no wings (Fig 7)

Pseudepipleuron (pl. pseudepipleura) =  a narrow region dorsal to the epipleuron , defined by a secondary fold of the elytral disc (Fig 2)

Pterothorax = the wing-bearing part of the thorax (ie. the meso- and metathorax)

Punctate = pitted, covered with fine pits

Pygidium = the last dorsal segment of the abdomen, usually entirely exposed by the elytra in the Scarabaeinae (Fig 2)

Quadrate = four-sided

Reflexed = abruptly bent back

Reticulate = made up of a network of lines

Rugose = wrinkled

Scalloped = with a series of semicircular segments resembling a scallop shell

Sclerite = any part of the body wall bounded by membranes or sutures

Sclerotised =  with a thickened, hardened cuticle

Serrate = with a row of triangular teeth (saw-like)

Setae = sclerotised hairlike projections

Sexual dimorphism = the difference in appearance between the two sexes of the same species

Shagreened = Covered with a closely set roughness; granular

Sinuate = wavy, usually in relation to margins or edges

Spine = a thornlike process of the cuticle, not separated from it by a joint

Spiracle = an external opening of the tracheal system

Spatulate = spoon shaped; rounded and broad at the tip, tapering at the base

Spur = a spine connected to the body wall by a joint; an articulated spine (Fig 4)

Sternum = the entire ventral section of any segment

Sternite = a subdivision of a sternum

Striae (singular - stria)  = the longitudinal grooves running from the base to the apex of the elytra (Fig 3)

Subdentate (tarsal claws) = the lower edge is angled near the base of the claw

Subquadrate = not quite a square

Suture = groove marking the line of fusion between two formerly distinct plates, or longitudinal meeting point of elytra

Tarsal claw = a claw at the end of the tarsus (Fig 4)

Tarsus (pl. tarsi) = the last leg segment, attached to the end of the tibia. Made up of 5 subsegments (Fig 4)

Thoracic = belonging to or attached to the thorax

Thorax = the middle portion of the body, between the head and abdomen, consisting of three segments (prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax) (Fig 7)

Tibia (pl. tibiae) = the fourth segment of the leg, between the femur and the tarsus (Fig 4)

Transverse = across; perpendicular to the longitudinal axis

Trapezoidal = a four-sided figure in which 2 sides are parallel and 2 are not

Tribe = a subdivision of a sub-family, containing a group of genera, the name of which ends in "-ini"

Trochanter = the second segment of the leg, between the coxa and femur (Fig 4)

Truncate = cut off squarely at the tip

Tubercle = a small knoblike or rounded protuberance

Undulate = wavy

Umbilical = navel-shaped

Ventral = the under surface