Click on images to enlarge
tea plantation, Uganda (Photo: Chuck Bargeron, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org)
foliage (Photo: Chuck Bargeron, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org)
foliage (Photo: Axel Boldt)
fruit (Photo: Monocromatico, CC BY-SA)
tea plant in flower (Photo: Doug McAbee, CC BY-NC)
Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze
Camellia thea Link; Camellia oleosa (Lour.) Rehder
White tea, green tea, mchai (Kiswahili)
South East Asia and China
The editors could not find information on the naturalisation of this species globally.
Camellia sinensis is grown as a cash crop in plantations at high altitudes in East Africa. In Kenya, it is cultivated in Limuru, Kericho, Mt Kenya among others. In Uganda, tea is grown in Toro, Mubende and Mengo areas. (Paul Ssegawa, pers.com). In Tanzania, tea plants have been noted to escape from cultivation in areas of Amani, Mt Kilimanjaro and are considered to be invasive in parts of the Usambaras (Cicuzza and Kokotos 2010).
Forest edges and gaps at high altitudes in well drained soils.
Camellia sinensis plants are evergreen, medium sized woody shrubs growing to a height of 1.8 m.
Seeds of Camellia sinensis are animal-dispersed.
Camellia sinensis is cultivated in many parts of the world for black tea, green tea, white tea etc. It is an important cash crop in East Africa. The wood is used for fuel.
Camellia sinensis can spread from abandoned plantations into disturbed and undisturbed, natural forest and a logged forest where it can suppress the regeneration of other species. Tea has spread in this way in the Amani Nature Reserve in the East Usambara Mountains of north-eastern Tanzania.
The precise management measures adopted for any plant invasion will depend upon factors such as the terrain, the cost and availability of labour, the severity of the infestation and the presence of other invasive species.
The best form of invasive species management is prevention. If prevention is no longer possible, it is best to treat the weed infestations when they are small to prevent them from establishing (early detection and rapid response). Controlling the weed before it seeds will reduce future problems. Control is generally best applied to the least infested areas before dense infestations are tackled. Consistent follow-up work is required for sustainable management.
The editors could not find any specific information on the management of this species.
Not listed as a noxious weed by the state or governments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.
Cicuzza, D. and Kokotos, S. (2010). The invasive potential of tea: naturalization and spread of Camellia sinensis in natural and logged forests of the Amani Nature Reserve - www.tropical-biology.org/admin/documents/pdf_files/Tanz_abstracts/1-Daniele%20&%20Stef_Final.pdf
Paul, S., Wachira, F.N., Powell, R. and Waugh, R. (1997). Diversity and genetic differentiation among populations of India and Kenyan tea (Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze) revealed by AFLP markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 94: 255-263.
Agnes Lusweti, National Museums of Kenya; Emily Wabuyele, National Museums of Kenya, Paul Ssegawa, Makerere University; John Mauremootoo, BioNET-INTERNATIONAL Secretariat - UK.
This fact sheet is adapted from The Environmental Weeds of Australia by Sheldon Navie and Steve Adkins, Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland. We recognise the support from the National Museums of Kenya, Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI) - Tanzania and Makerere University, Uganda. This activity was undertaken as part of the BioNET-EAFRINET UVIMA Project (Taxonomy for Development in East Africa).
BioNET-EAFRINET Regional Coordinator: [email protected]