- High nutritive value and year round growth.
- Well adapted to grazing.
- Some Australian cultivars have relatively high heat tolerance.
- Vigour limited by viral diseases.
- Low tolerance to summer moisture stress.
Leaves: trifoliate, leaflets oval or heart shape may have light crescent mark on upper side. Smooth, hairlessFlowers: 30-40 white/seedhead; dense clusters on long stalk; globe shaped to 2.5 cm diameter; pale pink/white, fade to brownPods: small, oblong pods containing 3-4 seeds Seeds: brown/yellow; egg/heart-shape; ~1.6 million/kg
Pasture type and use
Most productive perennial for high rainfall/irrigated pasture; can maintain presence through ability to recruit seedlings. Vigorous growth in spring/summer can facilitate considerable nitrogen fixation by dominant stands
Where it grows
> 700 mm
Suited to a wide range of soil pH > 4.5; optimum 5.3. Tolerates low exchangeable aluminium and poorly drained soils. Well suited to peaty soil.
Cold and frost tolerant. Optimum range, 18-30°C
Sowing/planting rates as single species
2-4 kg/ha; sow at 5-15 mm into a clean, finely worked seed bed and roll
Sowing/planting rates in mixtures
Autumn or spring
Correct any nutrient deficiencies, especially K, P, Mo, S, Cu, B
For optimum growth Olsen soil P > 15
Very suitable for silage/hay. Excellent cattle pasture. Can be grazed hard but is susceptible to sustained heavy grazing by sheep in dry conditions; densely stoloniferous but varies with cultivars, small leaved cultivars are less susceptible.
Prolific seeder. Yields >1 t/ha but varies with cultivar.
Ability to spread
Recruits seedlings well; cattle effectively spread seed via dung
Moderate on disturbed land free of competitive species only. Prolific seed set and some hard seed dispersed by livestock
Red legged earthmite, lucerne flea, corbies, cockchafers, webworm, nematodes, cutworms, budworms, reticulated slug
Fungal: Clover rot (Sclerotinia trifoliorum) Wart disease (Physoderma trifolii)Viral: Alfalfa Mosaic Virus, White Clover Mosaic Virus, Clover Yellow Vein Virus Mycoplasma: Phyllody
A wide range of weeds may be encountered. When choosing selective herbicides, consider the stage of growth of the white clover and what non-target companion species are present. For detailed information consult local weed agronomists or visit NSW DPI - Weed control in Lucerne and Pastures 2007
High; nutritive value decline with maturity is considerably less than for most other species
Good autumn and spring/early summer vigour; good winter-active cvv are available for districts (eg coastal) with milder winter
High bloat risk if dominant in spring. May contain cyanogenic glucoside compounds; the concentration is rarely sufficient to be significant
|Large leaved||Braidwood||Seed Genetics Australia|
|El Lucero||AusWest Seeds|
|Excel Ladino||Seed Genetics Australia|
|Grasslands Kopu II||Wrightson Seeds|
|RD 19 Taree Ladino||Seed Genetics Australia|
|SuperHaifa||Seed Genetics Australia|
|SuperHaifa II||Seed Genetics Australia|
|Super Ladino||Seed Genetics Australia|
|Will Ladino||PGG Seeds|
|Large-Medium||Grasslands Bounty||Wrightson Seeds|
|Grasslands NuSiral||AusWest Seeds|
|Grasslands Pitau||AusWest Seeds|
|Grasslands Sustain||Heritage Seeds|
|Grasslands Trophy||PGG Seeds|
|Medium||Canterbury||Seed Genetics Australia|
|Grasslands Challenge||AusWest Seeds|
|Grasslands Huia||AusWest Seeds|
|Grasslands Nomad||AusWest Seeds|
|Trifol sweet||AusWest SeedsBlair Technology Pty Ltd|
|Medium-Small||Grasslands Demand||CropMark Seeds|
|Grasslands Prestige||PGG Seeds|
|SuperHuia||Seed Genetics Australia|
|Small||Grasslands Tahora||Wrightson Seeds|
CSIRO, Departments of Primary Industry
Author and date