Glossary of terms used
Abdomen, abdominal = that part of the body posterior to thorax. The abdomen is strongly transversely segmented. The upperside, comprised of tergites, is often completely covered by the elytra but the last visible tergite, the pygidium, may protrude. The visible ventral segments are called abdominal ventrites.
Abdominal ventrites = visible ventral segments of the abdomen. In Anoplognathus six abdominal ventrites are visible on the underside with the first ventrite almost completely concealed by the hind coxae.
Antenna (pl., antennae) = paired multi-segmented sense organ, arising from anterior margin of eye. In Anoplognathus, the antennae are 10 segmented, segments 2-7 are small and segments 8-10 are strongly laterally lobed and folded together as a club.
Apex (pl. apices) = the tip or end of any structure, away from the base.
Base, basal = the nearest part of any structure to the main body. In beetles, the base of the body is at the junction of the pronotum and scutellum or elytra. Therefore the elytral base is the part nearest the pronotum and the pronotal base is the part nearest the elytra.
Bifid = forked; apically split.
Bilobed = with two lobes or projections (Figure 8).
Claw = one of two appendages at the end of each leg; usually sickle-shaped.
Coxa (pl. coxae) = the first segment of the leg, usually transverse or globular and inserted into the body (Figure 2).
Disc = the middle part of any large expansive structure, for example pronotum, elytron. Excludes the margins.
Elytron, elytral (pl. elytra) = one of a pair of modified fore-wings of beetles, characteristically rigid, which fit over the abdomen when at rest, covering the hind wings (Figure 3).
Elytral suture = the line of junction of the elytra, when not being used for flight (Figure 3).
Femur, femoral (pl. femora) = the third segment of the leg, between the trochanter and the tibia (Figure 2).
Genus (pl., genera) = a rank in taxonomy denoting a group of species considered to be more closely related to each other than to other species. The generic name is written in italics with a capital first letter and is part of the name of a species eg Anoplognathus concolor.
Glabrous = hairless, without pubescence.
Head = anterior part of the body, which contains most of the sensory organs (Figure 3).
Preapical = just before the apex.
Pubescence = covering of hairs or setae.
Puncture = a small circular pit in the surface of the cuticle.
Rugulose = rugose but on a fine scale, surface appearing rough under high magnification.
Sclerotised = having a thickened, hardened cuticle.
Semicircular = literally half a circle, but here used for arcuate shapes with length more than half width (Figure 8).
Semiovate = arcuate in shape, with length less than half width (Figure 8).
Setose = covered with setae.
Shape = the form of an object depending on its outline or extenal surface; Figure 8 displays shapes mentioned in the key.
Sinuate = S-shaped, usually in relation to margins or edges (Figure 8).
Spine = a thornlike process of the cuticle, not separated from it by a joint.
Spinule, spinulose = a small spine.
Spur = an articulated spine, usually in reference to the tibiae (Figure 2).
Subapical = located near the apex.
Suture = line of fusion of two distinct sclerites.
Thorax, thoracic = the middle portion of the body, between the head and abdomen, consisting of three segments (prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax) (Figure 4). The legs and wings are attached to the thorax.
Tibia (pl. tibiae) = the fourth segment of the leg, between the femur and the tarsus (Figure 2).
Tuft = a cluster of erect and elongate setae arising from a small area of cuticle.
Venter, ventral = the under surface of any structure (Figure 6)