Grasshoppers and katydid

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Scientific name: Attractomorpha psitaccina de Haan

Common name: Slant-faced grasshopper

Scientific name: Phaneroptera furcifera Stal

Common name: Katydid

Scientific name: Gesonula zonocera mundata Navas

Common name: Taro grasshopper

 

Taxonomy

 

Class

Insecta

Order

Orthoptera

Family

A. psitaccina - Acrididae

P. furcifera- Tettigoniidae

 

Geographical distribution

 

Worldwide in distribution.

 

Damage

Slant-faced grasshopper and katydid are voracious leaf eaters that make big irregular holes before they consume the entire leaf.

Morphology

 

Slant-faced grasshopper

 

Eggs. The eggs are laid in the soil in groups.  Embryonic development begins soon after the egg is laid

Nymphs. The nymphs appear similar to the adults except that they lack wings and have incomplete reproductive organs. There are five nymphal instars, and nymphs moult after each instar.

Adult. The adult slant-faced grasshopper has a pointed conical head and measures about 30-40 mm long.  The upper part of the female body is greenish green while that of the male is brownish.  The hindwings are transparent with pinkish base.

 

Katydid

 

Eggs. The eggs are laid  singly or in linear groups. 

 

Nymphs. There are 4 nymphal instars lasting from 30-41 days. They are grass green in colour  and measure about 17 mm (male) and 14 mm (female) long.

 

Adult. The adult katydid is foliage green in colour with brownish red veins on hindwings.  They can be distinguished from grasshoppers by their long antennae.

 

Taro grasshopper

 

Eggs. The eggs are laid in clusters which are protected with reddish brown gummy substances.

 

Nymphs. The nymphs are similar to the adults and are sometimes semi-aquatic.

 

Adults.  The adult is about 30 mm long and pale brown or green. It has black stripes running from eyes to tips  to tips of wings.  Femur of hindlegs is greenish yellow. Tibiae are bluish green with black-tipped spines.

 

Biology and ecology

 

Slant-faced grasshopper

 

Eggs are laid in the soil in groups, enclosed in a sticky pod where loose soil get stuck. This pod protects the eggs from parasites, desiccation and mechanical hazards.  Embryonic development begins soon after the egg is laid, and require warm conditions to develop. The nymphs undergo five stages, moults at the completion of each stage, and become capable of reproduction. They have under developed wings and are not capable of flying. Warm dry weather favours survival of the adults.

 

Katydid

 

Although katydids are often referred to as  grasshoppers, there are a number of differences. Katydids have long antennae and sword-like ovipositors while grasshoppers have short antennae and blunt ovipositors.  Another difference is in their egg-laying behaviour. Katydids lay their eggs on plant parts while grasshoppers lay theirs on the ground.

 

Taro grasshopper

 

Using its ovipositor, the female taro grasshopper bores into the petiole of the host plant where it lays eggs in clusters that are protected with brown gummy substances. Nymphs and adults of taro grasshopper are usually found on water plants like taro and water hyacinths, the main hosts. Only the adults are frequently seen feeding on sweetpotato.

Host range

Apart from sweetpotato  they also feed on cabbage, cauliflower, citrus, coconut, corn, cotton, cucumber, loofah, legumes, melon, mustard, radish, rice, sorghum, sugarcane, tobacco, wheat and white potato  

Management

No control measure has been identified.

References

Amalin, D.M. and Vasquez, E.A. 1993. A handbook on Philippine sweetpotato pests and their natural enemies. International Potato Center (CIP), Los Bańos, Philippines. 82 p.

Davidowitz, G. 2002. Grasshoppers. http://www.desertmuseum.org/. 12 July 2002.

Evans, E. W. 1990. Grasshoppers in Utah: General Biology Fact Sheet No. 72, Utah State University Extension. http://extension.usu.edu/files/factsheets/grassho3.pdf.

Roe, A. H. 2000. Grasshoppers and their control. Fact Sheet No. 48, Utah State University Extension. http://extension.usu.edu/files/factsheets/grasshop.pdf.

Vasquez, E.A. and Sajise C. E. 1989. Pests of sweetpotato: Insects, mites and diseases. PRIS and PRCRTC, Visayas State College of Agriculture, Baybay, Leyte, Philippines. 66 pp.

Contributed by: Erlinda Vasquez and Vilma Amante

Taxonomy

Geographical distribution

Damage

Morphology

Biology and ecology

Host range

Management

References

Slant-faced grasshoppers on sweetpotato leaf (E. Vasquez).

 

 

Katydid female depositing an egg (E. Vasquez).

 

Katydid nymph feeding on leaf (E. Vasquez).

 

Katydid feeding on leaf, showing long antennae (J. O'Sullivan)

 

Taro grasshopper adult (E. Vasquez).