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Common name: Black leaffolder

Scientific name: Brachmia convolvuli Wals

Common name: Brown leaffolder

Scientific name: Ochyrotica concursa Wals

Common Name: Green leaffolder

Scientific Name : Herpetogramma hipponalis (Walker)


Fold produced by green leaffolder with web visible through feeding hole (J. O'Sullivan).


Browning and holes inside the folds produced by brown leaffolder (E. Vasquez).

Diagnostic summary

  • What they do to plants

- brown leaffolder attacks the shoot and feeds inside unopened leaves.


- green and black leaffolders attack open leaves of any age.  They fold the leaves using web and feed inside the fold.


- young larvae scrape the leaf surface leaving papery patches where the lower epidermis remains.  As the larvae mature, they eat through the leaf blade producing large irregular or lace-like holes with only main veins remaining intact.


- the feeding area is littered with blackish excreta.


- holes produced by green leaffolder are bigger than those produced by the black leaffolder.

  • Widespread throughout Asia and Africa.


Economic importance

Geographical distribution



Biology and ecology

Host Range

Biological control




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