The authors greatly thank and appreciate the help and contributions of the following people:

Terrence Walters, USDA APHIS CPHST, for an incredible amount of help and advice.

Amanda Hodges, University of Florida, Southern Plant Diagnostics Network, for support and funding assistance.

Julia L. Scher, USDA APHIS, for her valuable technical assistance.

Jiri Hulcr, Michigan State University, for his valuable suggestions and comments.

Robert Rabaglia, USDA Forest Service

E. Richard Hoebeke, Cornell University

Steve Passoa, USDA APHIS PPQ

David T. Almquist, University of Florida

B. Staffan Lindgren, University Northern British Columbia

M. L. Ferro, Louisiana State Arthropod Museum

Dan Mackinnon, USDA APHIS PPQ CPHST for his helpful review.

Image Credits

Thomas H. Atkinson (

Robert J. Rabaglia, Stephanie A. Stephens, & Anthony I. Cognato (

James R. Baker (ret.) NC State University, Raleigh, NC.

James LaBonte and Steven A. Valley, Oregon Dept. of Agr.

Gerald J. Lenhard (ret.) LSU

Caribbean Insects @ Harvard Entomology (

S. L. Wood. 1982. The Bark and Ambrosia Beetles of North and Central America (Coleoptera: Scoltidae), a taxonomic monograph. Great Basin Nat. No.6: Table of Contents, pp. 1-1359.

Pest and Diseases Image Library, Museum Victoria, Australia

Steve Passoa, USDA APHIS PPQ,

Jim Stimmel, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (ret.)

Maja Jurc, University of Ljubljana,

Gyorgy Csoka, Hungary Forest Research Institute,

Louis-Michel Nageleisen, Département de la Santé des Forêts,

Natasha Wright, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,

Landesforstpräsidium Sachsen Archive,

Ext. Entomology, Purdue Univ CAPS Pest Info. Pics

Darren Blackford, USDA Forest Service,

Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University

M. L. Ferro, Louisiana State Arthropod Museum

Andrew Graves, UC Davis

Jiri Hulcr, Michigan State University,

Michael C. Thomas and Kate Okins, Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.

Megan O'Donnell in Cline, A.R., M. A. Ivie, C. L. Bellamy, & J. Scher. 2008. Wood Boring Beetles of the World: Wood Boring Beetle Families, Lucid v. 3.4. USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, California Department of Food and Agriculture, and Montana State University.

Lisa Roberts (USDA-ARS)

Joe Cavey, USDA/APHIS/PPQ, Northeastern Region

Museum Victoria, Australia. Ken Walker. PaDIL Pests and Diseases Image Library.,, University of Georgia

Cover and watercolor images by A.D. Cushman

water color of tree tops


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