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aedeagus (A. Ames)


Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach 1858)

Agromyza bryoniae Kaltenbach 1858
Liriomyza solani Hering 1927
Liriomyza hydrocotylae Hering 1930
Liriomyza mercurialis Hering 1932
Liriomyza triton Frey 1945
Liriomyza citrulli Rohdendorf 1950
Liriomyza nipponallia Sasakawa 1961

Common name:
tomato leafminer


Liriomyza bryoniae is highly polyphagous and has been recorded from 16 plant families (Spencer 1990). It is an important pest of tomatoes, cucurbits (particularly melons, watermelon and cucumber) and glasshouse-grown lettuce and beans (Spencer 1989).


Africa: Egypt, Morocco
Asia: China, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of Korea, Nepal, Taiwan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vietnam
Europe: Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom

Based on data from Crop Protection Compendium (2007).

Key characters

Head with frons bright yellow, hind margin of eye normally narrowly black centrally, both vertical bristles on yellow ground, third antennal segment small, bright yellow, mesonotum shiny black but with matt undertone, scutellum bright yellow, femora bright yellow with some brownish striations. Wing with last section of CuA1 is 2 times length of penultimate section, wing length 1.7-2.1 mm. Aedeagus: distiphallus with two distal bulbs, bulb rims circular. Larva with posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of 7 to12 pores, generally resembling L. huidobrensis.

Liriomyza bryoniae is very similar to L. huidobrensis and L. strigata (Dempewolf 2004, EPPO 2005). There are now robust molecular diagnostic tests to distinguish between the major polyphagous Liriomyza spp. including L. bryoniae (Kox et al. 2005; Masetti et al. 2006).


The larva of L. bryoniae forms a loose, irregular serpentine leafmine. Minkenberg & van Lenteren (1986) reviewed the biology and ecology of L. bryoniae and L. trifolii. In Taiwan, L. bryoniae has become more abundant and has been displacing L. brassicae. These two species are easily distinguished by examination of the distiphallus (Shiao 2004; Shiao et al. 1991). In Japan (Abe & Kawahara 2001; Tokumaru et al. 2007) and Vietnam (Andersen et al. 2002), L. bryoniae is now less abundant than L. sativae.



Abe Y & Kawahara T (2001). Coexistence of the vegetable leafminer, Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae), with L. trifolii and L. bryoniae on commercially grown tomato plants. Applied Entomology and Zoology 36: 277-281.

Andersen A, Nordhus E, Thang VT, An TTT, Hung HQ & Hofsvang T (2002). Polyphagous Liriomyza species (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in vegetables in Vietnam. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad) 79: 241-246.

Crop Protection Compendium (2007). 2007 Edition © CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Dempewolf M (2004). Arthropods of Economic Importance - Agromyzidae of the World (CD-ROM). ETI. University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.

EPPO (2005). Liriomyza spp. EPPO Bulletin 35: 335-344.

Frey R (1945). Tiergeographische Studien ber die Dipterenfauna der Azoren. 1. Verzeichnis der bisher von den Azoren bekannten Dipteren. Commentationes Biologicae 8. 114 p.

Hering M (1927). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Oekologie und Systematik blattminierender Insekten. (Minenstudien VIII). Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie 13: 156-198.

Hering M (1930). Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Okologie und Systematik blattminierender Insekten. Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie 17: 431-471.

Hering M (1932). Minenstudien XI. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie 26: 157-182.

Kaltenbach JH (1858). Die deutschen Phytophagen aus der Klasse der Insekten Fortsetzung. Alphabetisches Verzeichniss der deutschen Pflanzengattungen (Buchstabe B). Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins der preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens 15: 77-161.

Kox LFF, van den Beld HE, Lindhout BL & de Goffau LJW (2005). Identification of economically important Liriomyza species by PCR-RFLP analysis. EPPO Bulletin 35: 79-85.

Masetti A, Luchetti A, Mantovani B & Burgio G (2006). Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays to distinguish Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from associated species on lettuce cropping systems in Italy. Journal of Economic Entomology 99: 1268-1272.

Minkenberg OPJM & van Lenteren JC (1986). The leafminers Liriomyza bryoniae and L. trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae), their parasites and host plants: a review. Agricultural University Wageningen Papers 86-2: 50 pp. Wageningen.

Rohdendorf BB (1950). A new pest of water-melon - the mining fly Liriomyza citrulli Rohdendorf, sp. n. (Diptera, Agromyzidae). Entomologiceskoe Obozrenie 31: 82-84. [in Russian].

Sasakawa M (1961). A study of the Japanese Agromyzidae (Diptera), 2. Pacific Insects 3: 307-472. pdf

Shiao SF (2004). Morphological diagnosis of six Liriomyza species (Diptera: Agromyzidae) of quarantine importance in Taiwan. Applied Entomology and Zoology 39: 27–39. abstract, pdf

Shiao SF, Lin FJ & Lu WJ (1991). Redescription of four Liriomyza species (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Taiwan. Chinese Journal of Entomology 11: 65-74. pdf

Spencer KA (1989). Leaf miners. In Plant Protection and Quarantine, Vol. 2, Selected Pests and Pathogens of Quarantine Significance (ed. Kahn RP). CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 77-98.

Spencer KA (1990). Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera). Series Entomologica 45. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. 444 pp.

Tokumaru S, Ando Y, Kurita H, Hayashida Y, Ishiyama M & Abe Y (2007). Seasonal prevalence and species composition of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, L. trifolii (Burgess), and L. bryoniae (Kaltenbach) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Kyoto Prefecture. Applied Entomology and Zoology 42: 317-327.

WWW Resources

EPPO information on Liriomyza bryoniae fact sheet, diagnostic protocol, images

Liriomyza bryoniae in Dempewolf M (2004). Arthropods of Economic Importance - Agromyzidae of the World

Liriomyza bryoniae in Pitkin B, Ellis W, Plant C & Edmunds (2008). The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

Liriomyza bryoniae in Ellis WN (2018). Plant Parasites of Europe - leafminers, galls and fungi

Liriomyza bryoniae in Martinez M (2007). Fauna Europaea: Agromyzidae. In Pape, T. (ed.) (2007) Fauna Europaea: Diptera: Brachycera. Version 1.3 [128074]