damage on potato (P. Ridland)
hind margin of eye black (A. Ames)
femur yellow with dark striations (A. Ames)
aedeagus (A. Ames)
Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard 1926)
Agromyza huidobrensis Blanchard 1926Liriomyza cucumifoliae Blanchard 1938Liriomyza langei Frick 1951Liriomyza decora Blanchard 1954Liriomyza dianthi Frick 1958
Common names: serpentine leafminer, pea leafminer, South American leafminer, potato leafminer fly
Liriomyza huidobrensis is highly polyphagous and has been recorded from 14 families (Spencer 1973, 1990). The most important crops attacked are beet, spinach, peas, beans, potatoes and cut flowers (most commonly gypsophila, more rarely carnations and chrysanthemum) (Spencer 1989).
Africa: Comoros, Mauritius, Morocco, Réunion, Seychelles, South Africa
Asia: China, India, Indonesia, Israel, Jordan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Lebanon, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Syrian Arab Republic, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
Europe: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom (incursions eradicated)
North America: Canada, mainland USA (Liriomyza langei)
Oceania: Guam, Hawaii (Liriomyza langei)
South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela
Based on data from Crop Protection Compendium (2007)
Head with frons yellow, hind margin of eye largely black, third antennal segment enlarged, brownish yellow or at least somewhat brownish towards apex, mesonotum black and matt, scutellum bright yellow, femora yellow with brownish striations. Wing with last section of CuA1 2-2.5 times length of penultimate section, wing length 1.7-2.25 mm. Aedeagus: distiphallus with two distal bulbs, meeting only at their rims. Larva with posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of 6 to 8 pores. Key diagnostic features are shown in the PaDIL diagnostic images (Malipatil 2007).
Liriomyza huidobrensis is very similar to L. bryoniae and L. strigata (Dempewolf 2004; EPPO 2005; Shiao 2004). There are now robust molecular diagnostic tests to distinguish between the major polyphagous Liriomyza spp. including L. bryoniae (Kox et al. 2005; Masetti et al. 2006).
Since the early 1990s, there has been a rapid movement of L. huidobrensis and L. sativae eastward through tropical and sub-tropical areas of Asia, resulting in much crop loss and excessive use of broad-spectrum insecticides (Rauf et al. 2000). Liriomyza huidobrensis is the dominant agromyzid at higher elevations (>1000 m asl) in tropical Asia and has caused much damage to potato in particular (Rauf et al. 2000; Shepard et al. 1998; Sivapragasam & Syed 1999; Spencer 1989) while L. sativae is the dominant pest in lowland areas (Andersen et al. 2002; Rauf et al. 2000; Spencer 1989). While L. huidobrensis has been recorded in Lombok on potatoes in 2005 (I Wayan Supartha, personal communication), L. huidobrensis is considered less likely than L. sativae to establish in northern Australian horticultural areas (apart from the Atherton Tablelands).
The biology and ecology of polyphagous Liriomyza spp. (including L. huidobrensis) have been reviewed by Murphy & LaSalle (1999), Parrella (1982, 1987) and Waterhouse & Norris (1987). In recent years, there has been much additional research conducted on L. huidobrensis in South America, Europe and Asian countries on aspects of its biology (Lanzoni et al. 2002; Martin et al. 2005; Videla et al. 2006), climatic modelling (Milla & Reitz 2005), ecology (Chen & Kang 2004; Weintraub 2001), host plant resistance (Videla & Valladares 2007), insecticidal control (Hidrayani et al. 2005; Prijono et al. 2004) and natural enemies (Fisher et al. 2005). A summary of the biology and diagnostic characteristics of L. huidobrensis are also given in the PaDIL fact sheet (Malipatil 2007).
The larva of L. huidobrensis forms an irregular serpentine mine tending to be restricted by veins within segments of the leaf and undulating between upper and lower leaf surface. On potatoes, the infested leaves and leaves senesce prematurely, up to 4 weeks early.
In southern Australia, common agromyzids such as L. chenopodii, L. brassicae and Chromatomyia syngenesiae (usually on Sonchus oleraceus) on weeds and other non-crop plants would act as important reservoirs for populations of parasitoids (e.g. Diglyphus isaea) of L. huidobrensis and invasive polyphagous agromyzids (Bjorksten et al. 2005; Lardner 1991).
Liriomyza huidobrensis is now considered a complex of two cryptic species (Scheffer 2000). This follows a study of specific sequences in mitochondrial and nuclear genomes (Scheffer 2000; Scheffer & Lewis 2001). The name Liriomyza langei has been applied to North American (USA & Hawaii) populations, and the name L. huidobrensis applied to Central and South American populations. All invasive populations in Africa, Asia, Canada and Europe were found to belong to L. huidobrensis as so defined (Scheffer et al. 2001). Liriomyza langei and L. huidobrensis could not be separated morphologically, but a PCR-RFLP protocol for separating them has been published (Scheffer et al. 2001). Consequently the literature from USA on L. huidobrensis should in fact be considered as L. langei.
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