damage on potato (P. Ridland)
hind margin of eye black (A. Ames)
femur yellow with dark striations (A. Ames)
aedeagus (A. Ames)
Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard 1926)
Agromyza huidobrensis Blanchard 1926Liriomyza cucumifoliae Blanchard 1938Liriomyza langei Frick 1951Liriomyza decora Blanchard 1954Liriomyza dianthi Frick 1958
Common names: serpentine leafminer, pea leafminer, South American leafminer, potato leafminer fly
Liriomyza huidobrensis is highly polyphagous and has been recorded worldwide from 365 host plant species in 49 plant families (Weintraub et al. 2017). The most important crops attacked include beans, peas, beet, spinach, potatoes, tomatoes and cut flowers (including gypsophila, carnations and chrysanthemum) (Spencer 1989).
Africa: Comoros, Kenya, Mauritius, Morocco, Réunion, Seychelles, South Africa
Asia: China, India, Indonesia, Israel, Jordan,Lebanon, Malaysia, North Korea, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Syrian Arab Republic, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
Europe: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom (incursions eradicated)
North America: Canada, mainland USA (Liriomyza langei)
Oceania: Australia (New South Wales 2020; Queensland 2020), Guam, Hawaii (Liriomyza langei)
South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela
Based on data from CABI Invasive Species Compendium (2019)
Head with frons yellow, hind margin of eye largely black, third antennal segment enlarged, brownish yellow or at least somewhat brownish towards apex, mesonotum black and matt, scutellum bright yellow, femora yellow with brownish striations. Wing with last section of CuA1 2-2.5 times length of penultimate section, wing length 1.7-2.25 mm. Aedeagus: distiphallus with two distal bulbs, meeting only at their rims. Larva with posterior spiracles each with an ellipse of 6 to 8 pores. Key diagnostic features are shown in the PaDIL diagnostic images (Malipatil 2007).
Liriomyza huidobrensis is very similar to L. bryoniae and L. strigata (Dempewolf 2004; EPPO 2005; Shiao 2004). There are now robust molecular diagnostic tests to distinguish between the major polyphagous Liriomyza spp. including L. bryoniae (Kox et al. 2005; Masetti et al. 2006; Nakamura et al. 2013; Sooda et al. 2017). Molecular Diagnostics
Since the early 1990s, there has been a rapid movement of L. huidobrensis and L. sativae eastward through tropical and sub-tropical areas of Asia, resulting in much crop loss and excessive use of broad-spectrum insecticides (Rauf et al. 2000). Liriomyza huidobrensis is the dominant agromyzid at higher elevations (>1000 m asl) in tropical Asia and has caused much damage to potato in particular (Rauf et al. 2000; Shepard et al. 1998; Sivapragasam & Syed 1999; Spencer 1989; Tantowijoyo & Hoffmann 2010) while L. sativae is the dominant pest in lowland areas (Andersen et al. 2002; Rauf et al. 2000; Spencer 1989; Tantowijoyo & Hoffmann 2010). While L. huidobrensis has been recorded in Lombok on potatoes in 2005 (I Wayan Supartha, personal communication), its thermal biology and Asian and Central American experiences (Rodríguez-Castañeda et al. 2017) suggest that L. huidobrensis is less likely than L. sativae to establish in northern Australian horticultural areas (apart from the Atherton Tablelands). Conversely, L. huidobrensis will be better suited than L. sativae to the more temperate horticultural areas.
In June 2020, the Australian Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment suspended the systems approach and alternative NPPO approved disinfestation treatment measures for chrysanthemum cut flowers from Malaysia due to repeated detections of Liriomyza huidobrensis. https://www.agriculture.gov.au/import/industry-advice/2020/102-2020. In Australia, Liriomyza huidobrensis was initially detected in western Sydney in October, 2020 and it has now been also recorded in southern Queensland (AusVeg 2020, DPI NSW 2020).
The biology and ecology of polyphagous Liriomyza spp. (including L. huidobrensis) have been reviewed by Murphy & LaSalle (1999), Parrella (1982, 1987), Reitz et al. (2013) and Waterhouse & Norris (1987). In recent years, there has been much additional research conducted on L. huidobrensis in South America, Europe and Asian countries on aspects of its biology (Lanzoni et al. 2002; Martin et al. 2005; Videla et al. 2006), climatic modelling (Milla & Reitz 2005), ecology (Chen & Kang 2004; Weintraub 2001), host plant resistance (Videla & Valladares 2007), insecticidal control (Hidrayani et al. 2005; Prijono et al. 2004) and natural enemies (Fisher et al. 2005). The importance of Liriomyza huidobrensis as a worldwide pest is demonstrated in the comprehensive review by Weintraub et al. (2017). A summary of the biology and diagnostic characteristics of L. huidobrensis are also given in the PaDIL fact sheet (Malipatil 2007).
The larva of L. huidobrensis forms an irregular serpentine mine tending to be restricted by veins within segments of the leaf and undulating between upper and lower leaf surface. On potatoes, the infested leaves and leaves senesce prematurely, up to 4 weeks early.
In southern Australia, common agromyzids such as L. chenopodii, L. brassicae and Chromatomyia syngenesiae (usually on Sonchus oleraceus) on weeds and other non-crop plants would act as important reservoirs for populations of parasitoids (e.g. Diglyphus isaea) of L. huidobrensis and other invasive polyphagous agromyzids (Bjorksten et al. 2005; Lardner 1991; Ridland et al.em> 2020).
Liriomyza huidobrensis is now considered a complex of two cryptic species (Scheffer 2000). This follows a study of specific sequences in mitochondrial and nuclear genomes (Scheffer 2000; Scheffer & Lewis 2001). The name Liriomyza langei has been applied to North American (USA & Hawaii) populations, and the name L. huidobrensis applied to Central and South American populations. All invasive populations in Africa, Asia, Canada and Europe were found to belong to L. huidobrensis as so defined (Scheffer et al. 2001). Liriomyza langei and L. huidobrensis could not be separated morphologically, but a PCR-RFLP protocol for separating them has been published (Scheffer et al. 2001). Consequently the literature from USA on L. huidobrensis should in fact be considered as L. langei.
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