Electronic multi-entry identification key for dacine fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae, Dacinae) of importance to the EU
The key contains characters to differentiate between adults of 23 fruit fly species of the subfamily Dacinae, that are considered of economic significance to the European Union region and associated regions. This key is composed within the framework of the EU H2020 project “FF-IPM” (In-silico boosted pest prevention off-season focus IPM against new and emerging fruit flies, H2020 grant agreement Nr 818184. See https://fruitflies-ipm.eu/). The short list of 23 species includes the three target fruit flies (Bactrocera dorsalis, B. zonata and Ceratitis capitata) and a number of species closely related to these. It was composed after consultation with different potential end-users (NPPOs, the European Reference Laboratories for Insects and Mites, EPPO). In addition, for each species a condensed datasheet is provided with the basic information regarding morphology, biology, host range, distribution, impact and management. Also, links to more extended information sources have been included for each species.
FUNDING AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The development of the key was largely funded by the project Nr 818184 ‘OFF-Season’ FF-IPM. Parts of the key were based on earlier versions for African fruit flies (developed by the Royal Museum for Central Africa, co-funded by the Belgian Development Cooperation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, see https://fruitflykeys.africamuseum.be/) and a key for identification of fruit flies of economic significance for Australia (see https://fruitflyidentification.org.au/). For the latter we greatly acknowledge the permission by Plant Health Australia (PHA) for use of some of their images and character states*. Copyright of these images remain with PHA. The key is illustrated with high resolution images taken or cropped specifically for this purpose. Part of them were made within the framework of the general digitization project DIGIT, funded by the Belgian Federal Government. Digital habitus reconstructions for African species have been provided by Georg Goergen (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Cotonou Benin), and additional images by Antoine Franck (UMR PVBMT, CIRAD La Réunion). We would like to thank the colleagues and collaborators who contributed at various stages in the development of this key (in alphabetical order): Jonathan Brecko, John-Henry Daneel, Vicente Dalmau, Hélène Delatte, Pedro del Estal, Alois Egartner, Antoine Franck, Amparo Ferrer Matoses, Elisabetta Gargani, Georg Goergen, Joanne Lee, Christa Lethmayer, Aruna Manrakhan, Giuseppe Mazza, Nikos Papadopoulos, Françoise Petter, Jane Royer, Mark Schutze, Leani Serfontein, Andrea Taddei, Seth Tsatsu, Rodney Turner, Alberto Urbaneja, Didier Van den Spiegel, and Matthias Wernicke. Last but not least, many thanks to Matt Taylor & Damian Barnier (Lucid, Identic) for their continuous support and assistance during the different stages of the key and app development.
DISCLAIMER: The key and fact sheets are made freely accessible. The authors take, however, no responsibility for any legal, economic or agricultural consequences by consequent actions or decisions made from using this key or fact sheets. The user is solely responsible for the scientific interpretation or any regulatory decision derived from information provided in this tool. It is recommended that the user seeks a professional identification confirmation should there be any far reaching decisions depending from identification made by using this tool.
* Plant Health Australia (PHA) kindly provided access to the Fruit Fly lucid key information (character states; including images) for 12 fruit fly species out of the 65 species presented in the Fruit Fly Handbook, i.c. Bactrocera carambolae, B. caryeae, B. kandiensis, B. latifrons, B. minax, B. occipitalis, B. pyrifoliae, B. correcta, B. psidii, B. tuberculata, B. tsuneonis, and B. tryoni. Copyright remains with PHA.
Photograph (splash & home screen): Bactrocera dorsalis dorsal, Bactrocera zonata dorsal & Ceratitis capitata dorsal. Copyright A. Franck, UMR PVBMT, CIRAD.