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Hemiptarsenus Westwood, 1833

H. varicornis, male H. varicornis, head
  H. varicornis, female
















Fore wing with three or more setae on submarginal vein. Postmarginal vein (PMV) distinctly longer (2x or more) than stigmal vein (STV).
Antenna with toruli inserted high on the face and also for this reason the slender scape, usually at least 5.5 times longer than wide, distinctly exceeds level of vertex. Flagellum with 1 anellus. Funicle 4-segmented. First 3 male funicular segments branched. Club with 1-2 segments.
Vertex, frons, face and clypeus slightly sculptured. Malar sulcus present and straight.
Notauli absent or incomplete. Mesoscutum slightly sculptured, with a few setae. Scutellum slightly sculptured, with two pairs of setae and without longitudinal lines. Propodeum often long and flat, slightly longer than broad, but sometimes 2 or more times broader than long; median carina and plicae, nearly always indistinct or absent (except H. unguicellus (Zetterstedt)). Petiole distinct, though often short.
Body colour usually brown to black or dark green metallic, sometimes with yellow markings on thorax and/or gaster.




This genus was recorded in Afrotropics, Australasian, Holarctic and Oriental regions (Noyes, 2001).



The species of this genus are mainly larval ectoparasitoids of leafmining Diptera. Among these, H. varicornis (Girault) is one of the most common Liriomyza Mik (Agromyzidae) parasitoids in the Australasian region (Shepard et al., 1998; Sivapragasam et al., 1999).
Other hosts, which partly include leafminers of different orders, are: Diptera (Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy), Homoptera Coccidae (Eriopeltis Signoret), Lepidoptera (Bucculatrix Zeller, Ectoedemia Busck, Elachista Treitschke, Gortyna Ochsenheimer, Leucoptera Hubner, Mompha Hubner, Ostrinia Hubner, Parafomoria Borkowski, Phyllonorycter Hubner, Prays Hubner, Stagmatophora Herrich-Schaffer, Stigmella Schrank, Trifurcula Zeller), Coleoptera (Blastophagus Eichhoff, Ceutorhynchus Germar, Hypurus Rey, Rhamphus Schellenberg) and Hymenoptera (Heterarthrus Rietter) (Zhu et al., 2000a; Noyes, 2001).


Hemiptarsenus belongs to the tribe of Eulophini by having funicle 4 segmented, propleura meeting posteriorly and covering prosternum, 2 pairs of scutellar setae and 3 or more setae on submarginal vein.
It can be distinguished from about half the Eulophini genera (those previously classified in the Elachertini, such as Stenomesius) by lacking complete notauli.
Other genera, either considered or not in this key, which are in the Eulophini and close to Hemiptarsenus are: Dahlbominus Hincks, Necremnus Thomson, Notanisomorphella Girault, Pnigalio and Ratzeburgiola, and Dicladocerus. Hemiptarsenus may be recognised from all of them by having scape distinctly exceeding apex of vertex. This character is also useful to distinguish Hemiptarsenus from Sympiesis, which is likely its closest relative. Moreover, Dahlbominus has a shorter postmarginal vein (1.7 or less than stigmal vein) and a complete median carina; Necremnus has a female funicle 3-segmented and a shorter postmarginal vein (1-1.5x stigmal vein length); Ratzeburgiola and Pnigalio have plicae and costula on propodeum; Ratzeburgiola has also longitudinal lines on scutellum; Notanisomorphella has distinct median carina and steplike plicae.
Keys to the genus Hemiptarsenus are available for the European (Boucek, 1959), Indian (Shafee & Rizvi, 1988) and Chinese species (Zhu et al., 2000a).


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October 2005
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