Key to the World Genera of Eulophidae Parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of Leafmining Agromyzidae (Diptera)
^Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Fitosanitarie, Sezione Entomologia agraria - University of Catania, via S. Sofia, 98 - 95124 Catania, ITALY - email@example.com
*CSIRO Entomology, GPO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601, AUSTRALIA - firstname.lastname@example.org
Leafmining insects are dangerous pests that reduce
plant metabolic activities and can lead to desiccation and premature
fall of the leaves. If leaves are seriously attacked, crops can be reduced
or seedling plants even totally destroyed (Spencer,
1990). The leafmining habit is found in several Lepidoptera and
Diptera species, and also in some Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Among
these, the Agromyzidae (Diptera) is known primarily as a family of leafminers,
as the majority (75%) of the almost 2000 known species display this
biology. They are pests of economic relevance of numerous vegetables
and floricultural crops in all the regions of the world. Several of
these species are particularly capable of causing extensive economic
damage to a large range of host plants under both field and greenhouse
conditions (Spencer, 1973;
Eulophid wasps are the most common parasitoids recorded
on leafminers worldwide, and the third most important family of Chalcidoidea
in relation to all biological control successes, after Aphelinidae and
Encyrtidae (La Salle & Schauff,
1995). Moreover, they are the most successful agents used within biological
control programs against agromyzids (Minkenberg
& van Lenteren, 1986; Waterhouse
& Norris, 1987; Konishi, 1998;
Murphy & La Salle, 1999).
Diglyphus Walker, Chrysocharis
Förster and Neochrysocharis
Kordjumov, particularly, have been using successfully against Diptera
leafminers, especially under greenhouse conditions. Other genera, e.g.
Quadrastichus Girault, Cirrospilus
Westwood, Citrostichus Boucek, Galeopsomyia Girault,
have been used in the biological control of Lepidoptera leafminers under
field condition (Noyes, 2003).
FOR MORE INFORMATION ON EULOPHIDAE, GO TO THE EULOPHIDAE PAGE.
About the key
In this website, we provided a key of the world genera
of eulophids recorded on agromyzid leafminers. We used 25 characters and
recognized 29 genera, divided in the subfamilies as follows: 6 genera
within Tetrastichinae, 10 within Entedoninae,
and 13 among Eulophinae (7 Cirrospilini
and 6 Eulophini).
AN INTRODUCTION TO HOW TO USE THIS KEY IS GIVEN ON THE TUTORIAL PAGE.
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Collecting leafminer parasitoids
The following is a brief summary of collecting protocol for rearing Agromyzidae leafminers parasitoids. Several further and more complete references are listed on collecting and preparing either insects in general (Martin, 1977; Walker & Crosby, 1988; Borror et al., 1989: 745-789; Huber, 1998), or Hymenoptera specifically (Prinsloo, 1980: 3-7; Noyes, 1982; Gauld & Bolton, 1988: 48-57; Grissell & Schauff, 1997: 54-60). In addition, Shaw (1997) specifically treats the subject of methods of rearing parasitic Hymenoptera.
- Try to collect parasitoids when they are in the pupal
(or late larval) stage.
- Prevent material from becoming moldy.
- Gather all essential information when collecting material.
- Examples of labels
- Rear parasitoids in an environment that resembles field
- Isolate hosts as much as possible.
- Prevent mold and sweating.
- Prevent drying out.
You will generally have to try a couple of different techniques to try and get the humidity balance right for rearing the parasitoids.
- Do not kill the adults in the morning
- Kill in 75-95% EtOH
- When putting specimens in a tube – ALWAYS MAKE
SURE THAT COLLECTING DATA ARE PRESENT.
- Keep alcohol specimens cold and dark.
- Keep dried material dry and away from insect pests.
- Keep tubes full
- Make sure the tubes are sealed correctly.
- Make sure the tubes can not rattle together.
- Make sure there is a protective layer around the package
containing the tubes.
- Make sure each tube has a proper label inside it.
Some useful links
control of Liriomyza leafminers (Murphy & La Salle, 1999)
Many thanks to...
Many people helped us in the production of this key.
Particular thanks to the ANIC Hymenoptera
Team: Claire Edwards, Il-Kwon Kim,
Tracey Parker, Ted and Cynthia
Beasley, Peter Macnicol, who ensured that
we had a lively and productive environment.
Matt Taylor (Centre for Biological Information Technology, University of Queensland, Australia), provided many useful comments on the working of Lucid.
Peter Boyadzhiev (Department of Zoology, University of Plovdiv “Paisiy Hilendarski”, Bulgaria); Gary Gibson (Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada); Christer Hansson (Department of Systematic Zoology, University of Lund, Sweden); Suzanne Lewis, John Noyes (The Natural History Museum, UK); Wendy Morgan, Peter Ridland (Victorian Department of Primary Industries, Australia); Aunu Rauf (Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University, IPB, Indonesia); Michelle Robinson (CESAR, Department of Genetics, La Trobe University, Australia); Gaetano Siscaro (Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Fitosanitarie, University of Catania, Italy); Wayan Supartha (Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University, Indonesia); Rosichon Ubaidillah (Laboratory of Entomology, Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Centre for Research and Development in Biology – LIPI, Indonesia); Carlos Lopez Vaamonde (Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent's Park, UK).
Cite this publication as:
Reina P., La Salle J. (2003) - Key to the World Genera of Eulophidae Parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of Leafmining Agromyzidae (Diptera). http://www.ento.csiro.au/science/eulophids.html