Glossary of terms

Abdomen = that part of the body posterior to thorax. The abdomen is strongly transversely segmented. The upperside, comprised of tergites, is often completely covered by the elytra but the last visible tergite, the pygidium, may protrude. The visible ventral segments are called abdominal ventrites. (Figs 1 and 2).

Abdominal ventrites = visible ventral segments of the abdomen. In Cetoniinae seven abdominal ventrites are visible on the underside with the first ventrite almost completely concealed by the hind coxae (Fig. 2).

Acute = sharply angled, at less than 90 degrees.

Alutaceous = covered with minute cracks like human skin.

Angulate = forming an angle.

Antenna (pl., antennae) = paired multi-segmented sense organ, arising from anterior margin of eye (Fig. 1). In Cetoniinae, the antennae are 10 segmented, segments 2-7 are small and segments 8-10 are strongly laterally lobed and folded together as a club.

Antennal club = the swollen end of the antenna formed by the greatly enlarged segments 8-10 (Fig. 1).

Anterior = at the front (Example Fig. 2).

Anterior angle = angle made between lateral and anterior edges or margins of any structure (Example Fig. 2).

Apex, apical (pl. apices) = the tip or end of any structure, away from the base.

Apico-lateral = region at junction of lateral and apical regions (Fig. 2B).

Arcuate = bow-like or arched.

Areolate = divided into a number of small, irregular spaces.

Attenuate, attenuated = gradually tapering apically.

Base, basal = the nearest part of any structure to the main body. In beetles, the base of the body is junction of the pronotum and scutellum or elytra. Therefore the elytral base is the part nearest the pronotum and the pronotal base is the part nearest the elytra.

Bifid = split in two (Fig. 2C).

Claw = one of two appendages at the end of each leg; usually sickle-shaped (Figs 1 and 2).

Clypeal margin = anterior edge of the clypeus (Fig. 1).

Clypeus = the lower and anterior part of the head, between the frons and the anterior margin (Fig. 1).

Coalescent = united or collected.

Concave = hollowed out: the interior of a sphere or circle as opposed to the outer or convex surface.

Confluent = running into each other.

Confused = of markings, having indefinite outlines or running together as lines or spots without definite patterns.

Contiguous = adjacent or touching.

Convergent = becoming closer apically.

Convex = the outer curved surface of a segment of a sphere or circle; opposite to concave.

Coxa (pl. coxae) = the first segment of the leg. Usually transverse or globular and inserted into the body (Fig. 2).

Cuticle = the thick outer layer of the insect body.

Decumbent = bent downward, that is, bending down at tip from an upright base.

Decurved = curved downward.

Disc = the middle part of any large expansive structure, for example pronotum, elytron. Excludes the margins (Example Fig 2).

Dorsal = the upper surface of any structure.

Elytron (pl. elytra) = The elytra are located posterior to the pronotum and are the largest visible sclerites on the upperside (Fig. 1). They are modified fore wings and cover the abdomen and the hind wings. In Cetoniinae they are not raised when the beetle is flying.

Emargination = cut-out piece of an edge or margin.

Epipleuron (pl. epipleura) = the lateral edge of the elytron bent back on itself, defined dorsally by a prominent edge.

Excavated = with a hollowed out region.

Femur (pl. femora) = the third segment of the leg, located between the trochanter and the tibia (Fig. 2).

Frons = portion of the head situated between the eyes and posterior to the clypeus (Fig. 1).

Galea (pl. galeae) = outer lobe of the maxilla; used in the function of eating (Fig. 1).

Glabrous = smooth and hairless.

Genus (pl., genera) = a rank in taxonomy denoting a group of species considered to be more closely related to each other than to other species. The genus name must be in italics and with a capital first letter and is part of the name of a species eg Eupoecila australasiae.

Head = anterior part of the body, which contains most of the sensory organs (Fig. 1).

Humerus, humeral (pl. humeri) = the basal swelling of the elytron (Fig. 2B) which covers the attachment of the wing.

Impunctate = without punctures.

Lamellate = like plates, in reference to the antennal club segments of Cetoniinae (Fig. 1).

Lanceolate = oblong and tapering to end; spear-shaped.

Lateral = to the side.

Mandible = one of two opposed teeth in the mouth, not usually visible in Cetoniinae.

Margin = the area at the edge of any structure.

Mesepimeron = a lateral sclerite of the mesothorax (Fig. 2), visible on the ventral surface.

Mesoventrite = the median ventral sclerite of the mesothorax, formerly known as the mesosternum (Lawrence 1999).

Mesoventrite process = anterior swelling or projection of the mesoventrite between the mid legs (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).

Mesothorax = the second or middle thoracic segment, bearing the mid legs and elytra (Fig. 1).

Metathorax = the third or posterior thoracic segment, bearing the hind legs and functional wings (Fig. 1).

Metaventrite = the median ventral sclerite of the metathorax, formerly known as the metasternum (Lawrence 1999) (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).

Microtrichiae = minute cuticular hairs.

Mucronate = describing a process with concave sides narrowing to an acute tip (Examples Figs. 1B and 2).

Notch = narrow indentation of an edge or margin (Example Fig. 3C).

Obtuse = shallowly angled, with apical angle greater than 90 degrees (Fig. 1).

Post- = after or below.

Posterio-lateral = behind and to the side.

Posterior = behind..

Posterior angle = angle made between the lateral and posterior edges or margins of a structure.

Pre- = before or above.

Process = an extension of a surface, of a margin, or of an appendage..

Pronotum = large dorsal sclerite located between the head and the elytra, the dorsal part of the prothorax.

Prothorax = the first or anterior thoracic segment, bearing the front legs, but no wings (Fig. 1).

Pubescence = covering of setae..

Puncture = small pit in cuticular surface, often with a seta. .

Pygidium = most posterior visible dorsal segment of the abdomen, often partly visible beyond elytra (Fig. 1).

Recumbent = reclining; lying down.

Rugose = sculptured so that the surface is irregular.

Sagittate = elongate triangular; arrow head shape.

Sclerite = any part of the body bounded by membranes or sutures.

Sclerotised = thickened cuticle.

Scutellum, scutellar = a small triangular dorsal sclerite of the mesothorax, wedged between the elytra (Fig. 1) and the pronotum. Internally, the elytra are attached to the scutellum.

Seriate = arranged or occurring in a series or in rows.

Seta (pl., setae) = an articulated hair-like projection on the cuticular surface.

Setiferous = bearing setae; for example setiferous punctures are punctures with accompanying setae.

Setose = covered with setae.

Sexual dimorphism = the difference in appearance between the two sexes of the same species.

Sinuate = S-shaped, usually in relation to margins or edges.

Spine = a sharp thorn-like process of the cuticle, not articulated.

Spur = an articulated spine, usually in reference to the tibiae.

Stria (pl. striae)  = row of punctures, from the base to the apex of the elytra.

Suture = the line of junction of two distinct sclerites (Example Fig. 1B).

Sutural margin = margin adjacent to suture.

Tarsus (pl. tarsi) = the apical part of the leg, attached to the end of the tibia, with 5 segments in Cetoniinae (Fig. 2).

Thoracic = belonging to or attached to the thorax.

Thorax = the middle portion of the body, between the head and abdomen, consisting of three segments (prothorax, mesothorax, metathorax) (Fig. 1). The legs and wings are attached to the thorax.

Tibia (pl. tibiae) = the fourth segment of the leg, between the femur and the tarsus (Fig. 2).

Tribe = a group of genera, of lower rank than family or subfamily.

Trochanter = the second segment of the leg located between the coxa and femur (Fig. 2).

Truncate = cut off squarely at the tip.

Variegated = having stripes, marks, or patches of a different colour or colours

Ventral, venter = the underside of any structure.

Ventrite = any visible ventral sclerite (Fig. 2), often used in reference to the abdominal sclerites.